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Preventive Healthcare

Effects of Heat Stroke on The Body

A heatstroke is a result of extended exposure to heat exhaustion. It is considered a medical emergency, and the person needs to visit a hospital as soon as possible. However, this is not something that occurs suddenly. It builds up gradually, starting from heat cramps and heat syncope (fainting) before heat exhaustion strikes that then becomes a heatstroke. Once you learn to recognise the signs of heatstroke you can help yourself and others avoid the dreaded life-threatening emergency. What Is Heatstroke?  Our bodies produce a huge amount of internal heat. The body cools down by discharging the excess heat through the skin or by sweating. However, sometimes this cooling mechanism may not work, mainly in conditions of high temperature and humidity or when you work in the sun for long hours. With this built-up heat not being able to release itself as the body gets dehydrated and does not sweat enough, the chances of a heat stroke become very high. In medical terms, heatstroke occurs when the body's internal temperature reaches over 104F.  Heatstroke is also known as thermic fever, sunstroke, or siriasis. There are two main types of heatstroke.  Exertional heat stroke: This kind of heatstroke is usually a result of physical overexertion in hot and humid conditions, and it normally takes a few hours to develop.  Non-exertional heatstroke: This is the classic form of heatstroke, and it occurs due to age and underlying health conditions. This type of heat stroke usually develops over a few days.  Difference Between Heat Exhaustion and Heatstroke  Both strokes are types of hyperthermia. Heat exhaustion is not as severe as heatstroke, and does not cause neurological or life-threatening effects. However, as mentioned earlier, when heat exhaustion is left untreated, it can result in heatstroke.  Heatstroke Symptoms  Some of the signs of heatstroke include: High body temperature: When the core body temperature exceeds 104oF or 40oC.  Altered behavior or mental state: Feelings of confusion, agitation, irritability, slurred speech, seizures, delirium, and even coma could result from heatstroke.  Flushed skin: Your skin can start becoming redder as your body temperature increases.  Nausea and vomiting: You can start feeling sick to the stomach or start vomiting.  Racing heart rate: There is a significant increase in your pulse as heat stress can put tremendous pressure on your heart to cool down your body.  Headache: Your head can start to throb.  Causes of Heatstroke Heatstroke can occur because of two main reasons Exposure to a Hot Environment This kind of heatstroke is called non-exertional heatstroke because the body's core temperature increases due to heat. This can occur because of exposure to hot and humid weather for an extended period. It is known to happen in older people and those with chronic illnesses.  Strenuous activity  In this kind of heatstroke, the core temperature of the body increases because of intense physical activity in hot weather. This is also known as exertional heatstroke. Anyone who exercises or works in hot weather can be at risk of getting an exertional heatstroke. This is especially true if you are not used to higher temperatures.  Secondary reasons for heatstroke can be:  Wearing excess clothing that doesn't allow sweat to evaporate quickly thus not cooling the body  Drinking too much alcohol as it can affect the body's ability to regulate its temperature  Getting dehydrated when you do not drink enough water to replenish your fluid after excessive sweating.  Risk Factors  There are several risk factors associated with an increased possibility of heatstroke:  Age Being able to cope with extreme heat depends on how strong your nervous system is. While the nervous system of those who are very young is not fully developed, that of adults over the age of 65 starts to deteriorate. This puts both these age groups at risk of developing heatstroke.  Sudden Exposure to Hot Weather Sudden exposure to extreme heat can result in heatstroke.  Lack of Air Conditioning  While fans make you feel better, air conditioning is one of the most effective ways of cooling down the air and lowering humidity. Lack of air conditioners can increase the risk of heatstroke.  Certain Medications Some medicines can affect your body's ability to respond to heat and stay hydrated. This makes it important for individuals who take vasoconstrictors (medicines to narrow the blood vessels), beta-blockers, diuretics, antidepressants, and antipsychotics to be aware of the signs of heatstroke and prevent it.  Health Conditions Chronic illnesses such as heart or lung diseases can increase the risk of heatstroke. Being obese and living a sedentary life is another major risk of facing this condition.  Complications Due to Heatstroke  Heatstroke can cause several complications based on how long the body has been exposed. Severe effects of heat stroke are:  Damage to vital organs  If immediate action is not taken to cool the body down, heatstroke can cause vital organs of the body, such as the brain, to swell. It can result in permanent damage to the organs. Reduces heat Tolerance Once you have suffered a heat stroke, your heat tolerance level is compromised. Heatstroke survivors may notice that if they go out or work in high heat, their body temperature rises faster and their body takes time to cool down as the sweating becomes less. Death Heatstroke can be fatal if the individual doesn't get immediate help.  Conclusion Understanding the signs of heatstroke and avoiding the triggers can help individuals avoid this condition. Other preventive measures can be staying hydrated, taking precautions when medicating, protecting yourself against sunburn, wearing loose and comfortable clothing, not being inside a parked car, and relaxing during the hottest part of the day. To learn more about such conditions and how to protect them, contact us at Metropolis Health. We provide a vast array of diagnostic tests and also offer home services for those who cannot physically visit a testing center. 

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Preventive Healthcare

Full Body Checkup: Here’s a Complete Test List

Are you due for a full body checkup but aren't sure what to expect? Don't worry, we've got you covered! In this comprehensive guide, we'll walk you through a complete full-body checkup test list. From blood tests to imaging scans, we'll cover everything you need to know to prepare for your appointment and make the most out of your health assessment.  What is a Full Body Checkup? A routine full body checkup at the doctor's usually consists of a few steps.  First, you will likely have your weight, height and blood pressure measured. You will also probably be asked some general questions about your health, such as whether you have any current or chronic illnesses, if you are sexually active, etc.  The doctor may also listen to your heart and lungs with a stethoscope and feel around your abdomen for any unusual lumps or masses.  Finally, you will likely have a few routine tests, such as a urine test and blood work. Complete Full Body Checkup Tests List A full body checkup list usually includes a variety of tests. These tests can vary depending on your age, health history, and other factors. But in general, a full body checkup test list will include: Blood Pressure Test: This measures the force of blood against your artery walls as your heart pumps blood through your body. Cholesterol Test: This measures the level of cholesterol in your blood. High cholesterol can lead to heart disease. Blood Sugar Test: This measures the level of sugar in your blood. High blood sugar can be a sign of diabetes. Body Mass Index (BMI): This is a measure of body fat based on height and weight. A high BMI can be a sign of obesity, which can lead to health problems such as heart disease and diabetes. Waist Circumference: This measures the size of your waist. A large waist circumference can be a sign of abdominal obesity, which can also lead to health problems such as heart disease and diabetes. Urinalysis: This is a test that looks for proteins, red blood cells, white blood cells, and other things in your urine. It can help diagnose urinary tract infections or other kidney problems. Thyroid Function Tests: These measure the level of certain hormones produced by your thyroid. High or low levels of these hormones can signal thyroid problems. Electrocardiogram (ECG): This test measures the electrical activity of your heart. It can help diagnose heart rhythm problems or other issues with the heart’s electrical system. Chest X-Ray: This is an imaging test that takes pictures of the inside of your chest to look for any abnormalities in the lungs or heart. Lung Function Tests: This is a test to measure how well your lungs are working. It can help diagnose asthma, COPD, and other lung problems. Pap Test: This is a test to look for abnormal cells in the cervix that can be a sign of cervical cancer. Mammogram: This is a screening test to look for signs of breast cancer. Colonoscopy: This is a test to look for signs of colon cancer. Bone Density Test: This is a test to measure the strength of your bones. Low bone density can be a sign of osteoporosis.  Skin Exam: This is an exam to look for any abnormal or suspicious moles or other skin changes. Benefits of a Full Body Checkup A full body checkup is an important way to maintain your health and catch any potential health problems early. Here are some of the benefits of getting a full body checkup:1. Early detection of health problems - One of the main benefits of a full body checkup is that it can help detect health problems early. For example, if you have high blood pressure, it can be detected during a physical exam and treated before it becomes more serious. Blood tests can also detect conditions such as diabetes and high cholesterol.2. peace of mind - Another benefit of a full body checkup is peace of mind. Knowing that you are healthy or catching a health problem early can help ease anxiety and stress.3. Improved overall health - Getting regular full body checkups can also improve your overall health by helping you stay on top of your health screenings and vaccinations. It’s important to stay up-to-date on your screenings and vaccinations to help prevent serious health conditions.4. Better management of chronic conditions - If you have a chronic condition, such as diabetes or heart disease, getting regular full-body checkups can help your doctor keep track of your condition and manage it effectively.  Who Should Get a Full Body Checkup? A full body checkup test list is recommended for everyone, but especially for those who are over the age of 50 or have certain risk factors for health problems.Based on the results of the physical examination and tests, your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes or further treatment.  How Often Should You Get a Full Body Checkup? It is recommended that adults receive a routine physical examination at least once every three years. However, some people may need to be seen more frequently depending on their age, health history, and current health status.  Conclusion A full body checkup is a great way to stay on top of your health and take control of any potential issues. We hope this article has given you an idea of what tests are included in a full-body checkup, as well as the importance and purpose behind them. Remember to always consult your doctor if you have any questions or concerns about your results so that they can provide appropriate advice and treatment.  If taking time out for regular checkups seems impossible, you can book a home visit with Metropolis Labs to get your tests done in the comfort of your home. This will keep you informed and make sure that your body is functioning correctly. Metropolis offers a wide range of full-body checkup packages. You can book the most suitable package for you or your loved ones here.

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Preventive Healthcare

Don't Let UTIs Control Your Life: Understanding the Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary tract infections can cause abnormal discharge, urinogenital inflammation, and frequent genital itching. It causes bacterial growth around the urinogenital tract. This can spread to the bladder, ureters, and kidneys upon neglect.  In addition, individuals with casual intimacy, frequent birth control implants or poor immunity may contract UTIs. Read this article to learn more about what causes UTI, potential symptoms, and available treatments.  What are The Potential Causes of UTI Infection? Potent antibiotic therapy and lifestyle measures are the first choices for UTI treatment against the pathogenic onslaught. Before explaining the course of UTI treatment, check out these essential measures for enhanced personal hygiene.   Enterococcus Klebsiella Proteus Pseudomonas 1. Lifestyle Issues Women in menopause are more prone to urinary tract infections. It often happens from little or no use of contraceptives during intercourse.  Besides, some individuals have a genetic predisposition. The infection rate is enhanced by poor sanitary hygiene. This makes potential pathogens multiply in the urinary tract. 2. Frequent Use of Birth Control Methods Unlike condoms, women using diaphragms and implants are also vulnerable to developing UTI infections.  In addition, the lack of trained hands when inserting birth control measures through the vagina leads to unwarranted pathogenic transmission.  3. Anatomical Anomalies Urinary tract infections can occur from anatomical abnormalities in children and adults. This includes urinogenital inflammation leading to protruded genitals. This leads to the growth of unwanted pathogen growth in the urinary bladder. Such acute infections can cause bladder blockages, leading to inflammation and the obstruction of ureters. 4. Poor Immunity People with incurable diseases like HIV, hepatitis and diabetes are more susceptible to urinary tract infections.  It impairs the natural immunity to fight potential pathogens. In addition, people with poor immunity are vulnerable to developing carcinogenic complications like cervical and prostate cancer.  5. Previous Exposure Patients with a clinical history of urinary tract infections may get infected again. Factors like incomplete antibiotic treatment lead to pathogenic resistance.  In addition, healthy patients may become infected with UTI strains upon exposure to non-sanitised clinical setups. Also, unhygienic catheter insertion and illegal abortions make you vulnerable to developing UTIs. How to Recognise Underlying Symptoms of Urinary Tract Infection? Early symptoms of UTI infections include unexplained urinogenital discomfort and abdominal inflammation. In addition, the infection expands specifically on the presence of the pathogen.  Urinary tract infections comprise lower (urethra and bladder) and upper (ureters and kidneys). Consult your doctor for a quick diagnosis if you experience one or more symptoms: 1. Lower Urinary Tract Infection Frequent urination Inflammation when urinating Abnormal urination volume Cloudy texture and foul-smelling urine Passing blood with urine Marked lower abdominal discomfort and lower backache. 2. Upper Urinary Tract Infection You may experience serial inflammation and pain around the upper abdominal region spreading out sideways. Includes recurring high fever Triggers frequent nausea and vomiting. Cause unexplained chills and tremors. What are The Potential UTI Treatments? Primary UTI treatment requires antibiotic therapy and lifestyle measures. This is to prevent a recurring pathogenic onslaught. Before expanding on the course of treatment depending on underlying pathogens, check out these essential measures for intimate hygiene: 1. Stay Hydrated Drink adequate water to stay hydrated for regular urination. This is a regular technique to flush out harbouring pathogens. 2. No Compromise With Personal Hygiene Maintain optimal sanitary hygiene (washing thoroughly after defecation). Wash your hands frequently before or after touching the genital area. 3. Do Not Apply Unknown Cosmetics Abstain from applying OTC products in your intimate area unless prescribed by your physician. 4. Wear Comfortable Fabrics Choose loose garments made of natural fibre. They comfortably absorb sweat. This ensures optimal circulation against the growth of pathogens in the urinogenital area.  How Many Types of UTI Treatment? Physicians classify urinary tract infections into simple and complex. This depends on the underlying location of the pathogens. Men and children show complicated UTIs (pathogen and anatomical complications), while women show simple UTIs (only pathogen driven).  Complicated urinary tract infection is more than pathogenic gene resistance against available treatment methods. Women mostly experience pathogenic urinary tract infections with more complex symptoms than UTI infections in children and men. 1. Simple Urinary Tract Infection Treatment Most uncomplicated urinary tract infections recover after a brief dosage of a suitable antibiotic. However, some cases require extensive treatment. Urinogenital inflammation and frequent urge to urinate reduce after a few doses. Again, this is not over without the completion of prescribed treatment to ensure a complete wipeout of existing pathogens.  In addition, women during menopause may require hormonal therapy. This is because natural oestrogen concentration can reduce UTI infections. Oestrogen imparts an antimicrobial secretion. It cleanses underlying pathogens. It also helps tighten the surrounding tissues. This makes them smooth to prevent the anchoring of pathogens in the urinogenital system.  2. Complex Urinary Tract Infection Treatment Complicated UTI infections require multiple therapies to counter the underlying pathogenic onslaught. Initially, the patient will receive intravenous antibiotic delivery for rapid action. The next line of treatment includes additional oral medications to eliminate any potential pathogenic presence.  Besides treating advanced UTI infections, the course of treatment includes reversing damage to ureters and kidneys. In extreme cases, laparoscopic surgery is the likeliest option to prevent sepsis.  Conclusion Urinary tract infection is a curable condition. However, it's not free from a chronic relapse without a complete course of antibiotic treatment. Women are more prone to contract recurrent UTIs than men. Besides, a preventive lifestyle is essential to reduce further chances of contracting pathogens.  Never ignore urinogenital discomfort. An untreated infection can affect your kidneys. Consult your physician if you experience repetitive symptoms of UTI infection post-recovery.  Your doctor may suggest a Urine Culture Test for a thorough diagnosis. Do you prefer a privacy-friendly sample collection? Check out Metropolis Lab, offering the best pathological test offers with complimentary doorstep collection through qualified phlebotomists. 

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Preventive Healthcare

What You Need to Know About Viral Meningitis and Its Potentially Deadly Consequences

Meningitis is an infection and inflammation of the fluid and meninges (membranes) that cover the spinal cord and brain. Headaches, stiff neck and fever are common meningitis symptoms. A viral infection is the main cause of meningitis. But it can also be caused by parasites, bacteria and fungi. Meningitis can sometimes get better on its own in a few weeks without treatment. Other times, it needs antibiotic treatment right away. If you think you or someone in your family has meningitis, you should immediately see a doctor. Serious complications can be avoided by treating bacterial meningitis early. Symptoms of Viral Meningitis Viral meningitis usually starts with viral infection symptoms like illness (malaise), fever, cough, vomiting, loss of appetite, muscle aches and headache. But sometimes people do not have any symptoms at first. Later, people show signs of meningitis. In general, people usually have a stiff neck, headache and fever. Attempting to lower the chin to the chest hurts, and lowering may not be possible. It is not as hard to move the head in other directions. Although the symptoms may be similar to those of bacterial meningitis, they are typically less severe and come on and get worse more slowly. Meningitis's Long-Term Effects According to research, 10% to 20% of people with meningitis will have health problems that last for a long time.  Long-term effects include the following: Loss of sight or hearing Memory and focus issues Balance and movement problems Behavioural problems or learning issues among kids Arthritis Epilepsy Organ damage Sepsis-related loss of toes, fingers or limbs Causes of Viral Meningitis Viral Meningitis is most frequently caused by Enteroviruses, such as coxsackievirus and echovirus Enteroviruses that tend to live in the digestive tract Other frequent reasons include the following viruses: Herpes simplex virus (HSV), generally type 2 (HSV-2) Varicella-zoster virus Arboviruses spread by mosquitoes, including the West Nile virus, the California encephalitis virus and the St. Louis encephalitis virus Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Symptoms of meningitis and herpes genitalis, a sexually transmitted virus, can coexist. Meningitis symptoms may manifest before genital signs, and some individuals with meningitis may not exhibit genital symptoms. HSV-2 stays in the body in a latent (inactive) condition after symptoms subside. In other words, no symptoms are produced. Nonetheless, it can periodically become active (reactivate) and cause symptoms. Meningitis caused by HSV-2 can thus reoccur. The varicella-zoster virus brings on Chickenpox. The varicella-zoster virus, like HSV-2, resides in the body in an inactive condition. The virus may never produce signs again, or it may resurface after several years. If reactivated, it produces shingles (herpes zoster) and may cause meningitis. In contrast to HSV infections that can often reoccur, shingles typically only occur once in a person's lifespan. Those with a weaker immune system, such as HIV, may have shingles several times. Diagnosis of Viral Meningitis A doctor can tell if someone has meningitis by examining their medical history, giving them a physical examination and running certain tests. During the test, your doctor may notice signs of infection all around the ears, throat, head and skin along the spine. Meningitis is frequently diagnosed through the use of the following tests. Blood Cultures A blood sample is put in a special dish to determine whether it grows microorganisms like bacteria. A sample can also be put on a slide and stained. Then, it will be looked at with a microscope to determine whether there are any bacteria. Book your Viral Meningitis Profile Test (IgG and IgM) today.  Imaging Head scans using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computerised tomography (CT) may reveal swelling or inflammation. CT scans or X-rays of the sinuses or chest can reveal an infection that could be linked to meningitis. Spinal Tap A spinal tap to gather cerebrospinal fluid is necessary for a conclusive diagnosis of meningitis. People with meningitis often have a low sugar level in their fluid, a higher number of white blood cells and more protein. By looking at the fluid, doctors may also be able to figure out what kind of bacteria caused meningitis. A polymerase chain reaction amplification, a DNA-based test, may be required if Viral Meningitis is suspected. Or, you might get tested to see if you have antibodies against certain viruses. This will help figure out the exact cause and the best way to treat it. Treatment of Viral Meningitis Antibiotics cannot treat Viral Meningitis, and most cases get better on their own in a few weeks. The following are typically used to treat minor cases of Viral Meningitis:  Drinking plenty of fluids Having bed rest Taking medication to ease pain and help bring down fever  Your doctor may give you corticosteroids to reduce inflammation in the brain and seizure medicine to stop them. A medicine that kills viruses is available if a herpes virus results in meningitis.  When Should I See the Doctor? Get medical help right away if you believe that your baby or kid has meningitis or if you experience symptoms such as: Fever Headache Tiredness or confusion Vomiting Neck stiffness A doctor will examine a baby immediately if the baby is fussy, has a fever and is not eating well. If your child is near a person with meningitis, you should call your doctor to inquire about preventive medicine. Conclusion You should maintain some basic hygiene, like when you sneeze or cough by covering your nose and mouth. You should disinfect the surfaces you frequently touch. Avoid drinking or swimming in potentially contaminated water. Rinse your nose with distilled or treated water. Do not eat meat or seafood that is undercooked or not cooked at all. Do not consume unpasteurised milk or eat foods made with unpasteurised milk. Use insect repellent that is safe for ticks and mosquitoes and cover as much of your skin as you can when you are outside to minimize the chance of bug bites. Meningitis is a rare disease that can become life-threatening very quickly. If you get help quickly, you have a good chance of getting better. If you think you might have meningitis, Metropolis can help you right away. With Metropolis, you can schedule a lab test and closely monitor your health.

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Preventive Healthcare

Normal Range of D Dimer and Results

A D-dimer test is a type of blood test that measures D-dimer, a protein fragment generated by the body when a blood clot dissolves. D-dimer is often undetectable or detectable only at extremely low levels unless the body is actively generating and dismantling substantial blood clots. A positive or high D-dimer test result can suggest that you have got a blood clotting disorder, but it does not ensure you have one. The results of a D-dimer test cannot tell you what kind of clotting disease you suffer from or where the blood clot is in your body. D-dimer typically breaks down in your blood. But if the clot does not break up or create another one, you will have an elevated D-dimer value. This can lead to some medical conditions. A D-dimer test essentially measures the amount of D-dimer in your blood. Learn the details of the D-dimer test, the normal D-dimer range and the normal D-dimer level by reading further.  What Is The Average Range for D-Dimers? A 2022 article claims that the normal D-dimer level is less than 0.50 mg/L of FEU (fibrinogen equivalent units). Individuals may have blood clots if their D-dimer level is 0.50 mg/L or greater. A positive D-dimer test may indicate a clotting issue. On the other hand, it cannot identify the specific clotting disease or pinpoint the precise site of blood clots. What Does a High D-Dimer Result Mean? If your findings show that the D-dimer levels in your blood are higher than what is considered normal, this might indicate that you have a disease that affects how your blood clots. The kind of blood clotting disorder you may have or the location of the blood clot(s) in your body cannot be determined by a D-dimer test. If you have been detected with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and are currently receiving therapy for it, a high level of D-dimer in your blood almost certainly indicates that your medication is not functioning as well as it should be. You can have high D-dimer levels even if you do not have a condition that makes your blood clot. Other things that can cause D-dimer levels to be higher than normal include the following: Heart disease Trauma Infection Recent surgery   D-dimer levels increase in older people, and rheumatoid arthritis may cause false-positive results. If your D-dimer levels are abnormal, your doctor will conduct imaging or more blood tests to determine what is wrong. What Is the Purpose of a D-Dimer Test? Doctors may suggest a D-dimer test if a person shows signs of a blood clotting disorder. The test is frequently conducted in a hospital or emergency room. Most frequently, healthcare professionals use D-dimer tests to find out whether a patient has a condition that causes their blood to clot. Deep Vein Thrombosis Deep vein thrombosis, also known as venous thrombosis or DVT, is a blood clot forming in a deep vein in your body. Blood flow through the vein may be partially or completely blocked by the clot. Most DVTs occur in the thigh, lower leg or pelvis. However, it may also occur in the arms, intestines, brain, kidney or liver. Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blood clot in your lung that occurs when a clot from another part of your body, usually your leg or arm, travels through your bloodstream and gets stuck in your lung's blood vessels. Diffuse Intravascular Coagulation Diffuse intravascular coagulation (DIC) creates too many blood clots to form in the body, which can damage organs and cause other serious complications. A D-dimer test is used to help doctors diagnose DIC, but it is also used to check how well DIC treatment works. Stroke When the blood vessel in your brain gets blocked or bursts, you have a stroke, also known as a 'brain attack'. Strokes happen when blood cannot reach a part of the brain because one or more blood vessels are blocked. Who Performs the D-Dimer Test?  Blood draws, such as those for a D-dimer test, are typically done by a phlebotomist. However, any healthcare provider who has been trained to draw blood can do this job. After that, your healthcare practitioner will send the samples to a laboratory. In the laboratory, a medical laboratory scientist will prepare the samples for testing and conduct the analyses using specialised analysers. What Are the Next Steps? If the result of the D-dimer test is unexpected, your doctor may prescribe one or more tests (imaging tests) to determine whether you have a blood coagulation disorder and the location of any potential blood clots. For high D-dimer blood levels, imaging techniques are done, which consist of the following: Doppler Ultrasound Sound vibrations are used in this imaging test to create an image of your vessels. Angiography Using Computed Tomography (CT) Your doctor injects a special pigment into one of your vessels for this imaging test. This aids in the visibility of your blood vessels on a specialised X-ray machine. Lung Ventilation-Perfusion Scan  A lung VQ scan is a test that uses a V (ventilation) scan to determine the lung's airflow and a Q (perfusion) scan to determine where blood circulates in the lungs. Both tests use minute, safe quantities of radioactive substances to enable a scanning machine to determine how effectively air and blood travel through your lungs. When Should I See My Doctor? If you think you might have a stroke or pulmonary embolism, go to the nearest emergency room immediately. Call your doctor right away if you think you might have deep vein thrombosis symptoms. Among the health conditions for abnormal blood clotting are major surgery, obesity, fractured bones, smoking and some malignancies. This may affect the typical D-dimer test value. Physicians may prescribe a D-dimer test if they predict a blood clot. Medical issues may be ruled out with the surgery.   Conclusion Anything less than 0.50 mg/L is considered a D-dimer normal range. The D-dimer value can determine the existence of blood clots. An elevated D-dimer value may suggest a coagulation problem. Keep an eye on your health to stay in shape. If you are experiencing any symptoms, you should follow your doctor's instructions and undertake treatments such as a blood test. With Metropolis, you can schedule a lab test and closely monitor your health. Book your D-Dimer Quant Plasma test today!

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Preventive Healthcare

Top 10 Vitamin D3 Rich Foods for a Healthy Diet

Are you looking for a natural way to boost your immune system and improve your overall health? Look no further than vitamin D3. This crucial nutrient plays a vital role in everything from bone growth to brain function, yet many of us do not get enough of it. Fortunately, there are plenty of delicious foods that are rich in this essential vitamin. In this post, we will be counting down a food list of vitamin D3 that you should add to your diet today for optimal health and wellness. What Is Vitamin D3? Vitamin D3, also known as cholecalciferol, is a type of vitamin D that is synthesised in the body from cholesterol. It is one of the two forms of vitamin D found in nature, the other being vitamin D2. Vitamin D3 is considered to be more bioavailable than vitamin D2, meaning that it is more easily absorbed by the body. Benefits of Vitamin D3 Vitamin D3 plays an important role in calcium absorption and bone health. It helps the body to maintain proper levels of calcium and phosphorus, which are essential for strong bones and teeth. Vitamin D3 also helps regulate the immune system, reducing the risk of certain diseases. It can reduce inflammation and has been linked to improved mental health, as it helps with mood regulation.Vitamin D3 is important for proper growth and development in infants and children. It also helps protect against diabetes, heart disease, multiple sclerosis and some types of cancer.In addition, vitamin D3 may help with weight loss by increasing metabolism and suppressing appetite. It is also known to improve energy levels, physical performance and sleep quality. Problems Caused by Deficiency of Vitamin D3  Deficiency of vitamin D3 can cause several problems, including: Weak Bones and Osteoporosis: Without enough vitamin D3, the body cannot absorb calcium properly, leading to weak and brittle bones. Increased Risk of Infections: Without enough vitamin D3, the immune system may not be able to fight off infections properly, leading to an increased risk of infection. Slow Wound Healing: Vitamin D3 is important for cell growth. Without enough vitamin D3, cells may not grow as quickly, which can slow down wound healing. Fatigue: A deficiency of vitamin D3 can cause fatigue and tiredness. List of Top 10 Foods That Contain Vitamin D3 Many foods contain vitamin D3, but the following vitamin D3 food list is some of the best sources of this important nutrient. 1. Salmon: This oily fish is a great source of vitamin D3, with a 3-ounce serving providing over half of the recommended daily intake. Salmon is also a good source of omega-3 fatty acids, which have numerous health benefits.2. Tuna: Like salmon, tuna is also a good source of vitamin D3 and omega-3 fatty acids. A 3-ounce serving of tuna provides about 40% of the recommended daily intake for vitamin D3.3. Eggs: One large egg contains approximately 10% of the recommended daily intake for vitamin D3. Eggs are also a good source of protein and other nutrients such as choline and selenium.4. Fortified Milk: Milk that has been fortified with vitamin D3 is another excellent source of this nutrient. A cup of fortified milk provides 30% of the recommended daily intake for vitamin D3.5. Fortified Orange Juice: Orange juice that has been fortified with vitamin D3 is another excellent way to get your daily dose of this nutrient. A 6-ounce serving of fortified orange juice provides 100% of the recommended daily intake for vitamin D3.6. Fortified Cereals: Many breakfast bowls of cereal are fortified with vitamins and minerals, including vitamin D3. Check out the nutrition label on your favourite cereal to see how much vitamin D3 it provides.7. Fortified Yoghurt: Vitamin-fortified yoghurts are also a good source of vitamin D3. A 6-ounce container of fortified yoghurt provides 20% of the recommended daily intake for this important nutrient.8. Liver: The liver is an excellent source of vitamin D3, with a 3-ounce serving providing over 80% of the recommended daily intake for this nutrient.9. Cheese: Cheese is another good source of vitamin D3, with most types providing at least 10% of the recommended daily intake per ounce.10. Shiitake Mushroom: Shiitake mushroom is one of the best vegetarian vitamin D3 foods. Mushrooms that have been exposed to ultraviolet light are a great source of vitamin D3. Vegetarian Vitamin D3 Food Recipes Here are some vegetarian Vitamin D3 food recipes that you must include in your diet: 1. Carrot Ginger Soup  Heat 2 tablespoons of butter in a large pot over medium heat and add 1 chopped onion, 1 minced garlic clove and 2 tablespoons of freshly grated ginger root.  Sauté for 5 minutes until softened, then add 4 cups vegetable broth, 4 cups diced carrots, 1 teaspoon of sea salt and ¼ teaspoon black pepper.  Simmer for 25 minutes or until the carrots are tender, then use an immersion blender to blend the soup until smooth.  Stir through 2 tablespoons of Vitamin D-fortified yoghurt before serving warm with crusty bread on the side. 2. Kale and Quinoa Bowls Heat 1 tablespoon of olive oil in a large skillet over medium heat and add 2 cloves of minced garlic, ¼ cup diced onion and 1 teaspoon of ground cumin.  Sauté for 5 minutes until softened, then add 4 cups of chopped kale leaves and cook for another 3 minutes.  In a separate pot, cook 1 cup of quinoa according to package instructions. Divide the cooked quinoa into 4 bowls and top with the kale mixture.  Drizzle each bowl with 2 tablespoons of Vitamin D-fortified olive oil before serving.  Key Takeaway Vitamin D3 is essential for a healthy body and mind, so it is important to ensure that you are getting enough of this vital nutrient. This article mentions some of the best sources of vitamin D3 food available to help you meet your daily requirements. A complete vitamin profile test can help you diagnose vitamin D3 deficiency. Book a home visit with Metropolis Labs to get your blood samples collected in the comfort of your home.

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Preventive Healthcare

Thalassemia: Types, Symptoms and Diagnosis

Thalassemia is a blood disorder inherited from a parent, which can cause the body to have a lower haemoglobin than usual. Haemoglobin helps red blood cells carry oxygen to the rest of the body. However, any disruption in this process can result in anaemia, leaving you feeling low on energy and fatigued. Those with a mild case of thalassemia may not need to be treated. However, anyone diagnosed with a more severe case of thalassemia might require medication and regular blood transfusions. By living a healthy lifestyle with regular exercise and a good diet, even individuals with severe thalassemia can cope with fatigue. What is Thalassemia? This inherited blood disorder causes your body not to make enough haemoglobin, an essential part of the red blood cells. Red blood cells do not function well without enough haemoglobin and can last for shorter periods. With fewer healthy red blood cells in the blood, the body does not get enough oxygen which is the fuel for cell function. This causes fatigue, shortness of breath, and weakness in the individuals. The overall condition is called anaemia, and severe anaemia can also lead to organ damage and, ultimately, death. Types of Thalassemia Thalassemia is a genetic disorder that can be classified as a trait, minor, intermedia, and major, depending on the severity of the condition. Those who have thalassemia as a trait may not experience any severe symptoms of anaemia, while those who have the most serious type may need to undergo treatment. Based on where the defect lies, thalassemia can be classified into alpha and beta-thalassemia. It is essential to understand which form of thalassemia you may have to ensure you get the proper treatment. Alpha Thalassemia Each individual inherits two sets of genes from each parent, making up the alpha global protein chain. The severity of the symptoms you experience will depend mainly on the number of defective genes inherited. One missing or defective alpha gene, also known as alpha thalassemia minima, does not cause severe symptoms. Two missing or defective alpha genes are known as alpha thalassemia minor and display only mild symptoms. Three missing or defective genes lead to Hemoglobin H disease, which can display mild to moderate symptoms. Four missing or defective genes is a rare disorder known as hydros fetalis with Hemoglobin Barts and can lead to death at the infant stage. Beta Thalassemia You inherit one beta-globing gene from each of your parents. Depending on how many of them are damaged or missing, you experience mild to severe symptoms. In the case of one missing or defective gene, an individual will experience mild symptoms of anaemia, also known as beta thalassemia minor. The individual will experience moderate to severe symptoms for two missing or defective genes. A more moderate version of the condition is called beta thalassemia intermedia, while the more severe case is Cooley’s disease or beta thalassemia major. Symptoms of Thalassemia The symptoms of thalassemia usually depend on the severity of the disorder. Asymptomatic Most asymptomatic individuals do not show significant symptoms of thalassemia, and they often have fatigue or other milder symptoms of anaemia. This happens when an individual is missing only one or two alpha and one beta genes. Mild to Moderate Symptoms Beta thalassemia intermedia can cause mild to moderate symptoms of anaemia. These can be issues like: Growth problems Delayed puberty Osteoporosis or bone abnormalities An enlarged spleen The skeletal problems, in this case, can be corrected with the help of surgery, while your healthcare provider may suggest the removal of your spleen if it grows too large. Severe Symptoms In this case, the individual is missing three alpha genes that cause anaemia symptoms from birth throughout their life. Beta thalassemia can lead to severe anaemia that starts getting noticeable around age 2. Severe symptoms of thalassemia include Poor appetite Yellowish skin (Jaundice) Tea-coloured dark urine Irregular bone structure in the face Diagnosis of Thalassemia Most cases of childhood and moderate to severe thalassemia are diagnosed early in life, as the symptoms show up in the first two years. For adults, your healthcare provider may prescribe a variety of blood tests that help diagnose thalassemia, such as Complete Blood Count (CBC) Complete Blood Count (CBC) test includes the measure of haemoglobin and the quantity and size of red blood cells. If you have thalassemia, your test results will show fewer healthy blood cells with lower levels of haemoglobin. In some cases, smaller than normal red blood cells are also present. Reticulocyte Count This test measures the level of young red blood cells in the body. It helps to diagnose whether or not your bone marrow is producing enough red blood cells. Levels of Iron Studies of the iron level in your body help diagnose the cause of your anaemia. Higher levels of iron but lower haemoglobin can indicate thalassemia, while low levels of both are a case of iron deficiency. Other tests, such as Alpha Thalassemia by PCR, Alpha thalassemia gene analysis (HBA1 & HBA2), Beta Thalassemia (Prenatal + Parental Testing) - 30 mutations, and thalassemia studies can help with the diagnosis of thalassemia during pregnancy and later in life. Conclusion Thalassemia is a treatable disease, and the level of severity of the disease depends on the kind of thalassemia you are diagnosed with. If you experience any of the symptoms discussed above, it is best to visit your healthcare provider to determine whether you need ongoing care. To err on the side of caution, it is best for individuals planning on having kids to check if they may be carriers of the thalassemia gene and seek advice from a genetic counsellor on moving forward. Metropolis Labs makes undergoing these tests easy, as individuals can opt for its at-home services. Highly trained technicians collect blood samples at home before sending them to our advanced diagnostic labs. You will then get the results via email or the Metropolis TruHealth app. Find the test you need here.