Pancreatic Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment
The pancreas is an organ located at the back of the abdomen, behind the stomach. The pancreas consists of glands that produce enzymes such as insulin and glucagon. Insulin and glucagon help control blood sugar levels. It also produces enzymes that aid in digestion. The pancreas consists of exocrine pancreas and endocrine pancreas . The exocrine cells (acinar and duct tissue) make digestive juices, and the endocrine cells secrete the hormones, commonly called islets of Langerhans. Pancreatic cancer occurs when’ DNA mutation of the pancreatic cells leads to continuous cell division. Hence, these cells grow uncontrollably, resulting in a mass of cells. Sometimes, the growth can be non-cancerous or benign. However, the growth is cancerous in some cases and can spread to nearby organs and blood vessels. About 95% of pancreatic cancers begin in exocrine cells. Around 5-7% are tumours of the islet of Langerhans. What are The Symptoms of Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose as symptoms are often seen during later stages. Some of the later stage symptoms include: Nausea and vomiting Unexplained weight loss Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice) Loss of appetite Blood clots and fatigue Lower abdominal pain that spreads to the back Light coloured stools Darker coloured urine Over time, complications such as weight loss, jaundice, pain and bowel obstruction may increase. As cancer grows and consumes the body's energy, the growing tumour may press on the stomach, block the liver's bile duct, leading to jaundice, and press on the nerves in the abdomen, causing severe pain. The pancreas also does not make enough digestive juices, causing weight loss and inability to digest. Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer As doctors cannot analyse the pancreas during routine physical examinations, some of the tests to diagnose pancreatic cancer include: Examination of medical history: The patient's past illnesses and health history are examined. Imaging tests: A computerised tomography (CT scan), MRI scan, or a Positron emission tomography (PET) scan is done to find malignant tumour cells in the body. Ultrasound: An abdominal ultrasound is done to visualise the pancreas. Endoscopic ultrasound can also be done where the endoscope (a thin tube with a camera at the tip) is used to image the structure. A tissue sample is also obtained from the pancreas using an ultrasound-guided biopsy. Tumour marker test: Performing a CA-19-9 blood test or a carcinoembryonic blood test helps diagnose the cancer. Higher levels usually indicate a tumour, as the protein is released by pancreatic cancer cells. Causes of Pancreatic Cancer There is no definitive cause of pancreatic cancer. Research and several studies have identified certain risk factors that may cause pancreatic cancer, such as: Hereditary factors like mutations in the BRCA genes and hereditary chronic pancreatitis due to hereditary mutations Obesity Smoking cigarettes or other forms of tobacco. Having type 1 or type 2 diabetes, or the sudden development of diabetes in someone with normal body mass index Being exposed to chemicals such as pesticides, cleaning agents, metals Pancreatic Cancer Stages: Diagnosis of Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic cancer is generally classified into five stages based on the tumour’s size and location. The spread of the cancer is also taken into consideration. While it is not detected early, pancreatic cancer causes the tumour to spread to nearby lymph nodes, the liver, the lining of the abdominal cavity and the lungs. The stages of pancreatic cancer include: Stage 0 This stage is characterised by abnormal cells in the lining of the pancreas. These cells have the potential to be cancerous or benign. Stage 1 The tumour is present in the pancreas. Stage 2 The tumour in the pancreas has spread to the nearby tissues and organs. Stage 3 The cancer has spread to the blood vessels near the pancreas and the lymph nodes. This is the start of its metastatic property, as the cancer starts spreading throughout the body. Stage 4 In this final stage, the cancer has spread to distant areas of the body such as the lungs, abdominal cavity and liver. The prognosis stage can help the medical adviser provide proper treatment depending on the cancer stage. Stage four pancreatic cancer survival rate is about one or two years post-diagnosis. Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer The treatment of pancreatic cancer is based on the progression of cancer, location of the tumour and age, and other health parameters of the patient. Some of the treatment options include, Radiation/chemotherapy: This method targets and kills the cancer cells using high-speed energy radiation. Immunotherapy: This treatment helps the body's immunity fight cancer. Surgical removal of the tumour: The cancerous part of the pancreas, called pancreatectomy, is surgically removed under this method. The surgical removal and the procedure are decided based on the tumour’s location. Final Note: Management of Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms Making decisions during and post-treatment should be a discussion involving the patient's requirements and the doctor's. Pain medication is the first line of managing side effects. If they do not work, the doctor can perform a procedure known as celiac plexus neurolysis (CPN) using endoscopic ultrasound to inject medicine or cut the nerves to block the feeling of pain. Patients with pancreatic cancer who have undergone surgery may have special nutritional needs as the ability to make pancreatic enzymes is affected. The medical practitioner may prescribe medicines to prevent malnutrition. Follow-up tests are also required to see how the treatment is working. The medical practitioner decides to continue, change or stop the treatment based on the progression or the results of the tests. Several emotional support groups and nurse practitioners can help in the management and recovery process. Refraining from alcohol, smoking tobacco and maintaining a normal, healthy weight by eating healthy and exercising are some methods that help reduce the risk of getting pancreatic cancer.
Coping With a Lung Cancer Diagnosis
The doctor will screen you for lung cancer if a tumour-like growth in the lungs is detected during a CT (Computed Tomography) scan. Lung cancer has general symptoms too, including: Persistent cough Blood in the sputum Loss of appetite Weight loss for no reason Feeling tired Breathlessness Pain in chest But remember, not every type of lung cancer has symptoms. A positive cancer diagnosis can occur without symptoms too. Cancer is the most dreaded of all ailments. Diagnosis of lung cancer can come with social stigma too since many might wonder if you have a smoking habit which caused the cancer. Around 95% of lung cancer patients have a history of smoking. This article has a list of tips that can help you cope with the emotional and physical toll your lung cancer diagnosis can bring. What is ALK-Positive Lung Cancer? ALK is an abbreviation for anaplastic lymphoma kinase. ALK is the gene in the body present from the embryo stage. The gene helps develop our nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract (gut). ALK-positive lung cancer occurs when there is a mutation or a misarrangement in the ALK gene. When such mutation occurs in the DNA of lung cells, they grow abnormally and multiply into more abnormal cells, causing cancer. These cancer cells start in the lungs and may eventually spread to other parts of the body, making it stage 4 (secondary or metastatic) cancer. The ALK-positive lung cancer forms around 4% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). There is a higher percentage of ALK-positive lung cancer in patients younger than 55 years of age and never smoked. Confirmation of ALK-Positive Lung Cancer When our individual DNA is being ‘written’ and if there is a typing error, the cells receiving the wrong information will grow into a tumour. Diagnostic tests such as biomarker testing look for such typing mistakes. The ALK-positive lung cancer can be further confirmed by testing your blood samples and a tumour biopsy. The procedures involve: Microscopic analysis of chromosomes Immunohistochemistry analysis of proteins Next generation sequencing Liquid biopsy The treatment is decided once the type and stage of cancer are determined. Remember that ALK-positive lung cancer stage 4 has the most treatment implications. How to Cope with Emotions After a Lung Cancer Diagnosis? A doctor saying “you have lung cancer” can be the most feared sentence you have ever heard. Your immediate reaction might be to go numb, hopeless, irritated, angry, or confused as to why it has happened to you, especially when you can’t think of anything you have done personally to get harmed in such a way. It is okay to experience these emotions. As you come to terms with the diagnosis, it is okay to experience extreme emotions at such a time. While trying to find treatment centres and experts who can help with medical options, here are a few supportive tips for coping with the lung cancer diagnosis. Try to put aside anything that is not urgent or important. Use this time to focus only on getting through this challenging time emotionally. Accept that you are not alone. Many people will help you in this journey. Seek help. Find out who can exactly help you and how. Keep away the guilt. Lung cancer patients often think that they made this happen. They start connecting some bad habits, especially smoking with cancer. However, if you let the guilt in, your tensions and worry will only increase. Share your version with your family and friends. They will provide practical and emotional support. Be kind to yourself. You may feel low and tired at times, but be extra kind and prepare yourself for the treatment. It is natural to worry about the treatment. Write down your fears about the treatment and its side effects, and discuss them with your doctor. When you are ready, start gathering facts from an expert oncologist about the type of cancer you have and the possible treatment options. Think ahead and organise your life, so you are set to receive the treatment. At home and office, take help to manage your routine. Be with those who lift your spirit. A cancer diagnosis can change your relationships. Those who love you are equally affected by your diagnosis. Hence sharing this news with them may be the hardest for you. Remember to stay close to every person you love. If they are present during the treatment and caring process, make sure they take enough breaks for themselves. Talk to your healthcare team and know more about your treatment and what to expect from it. This will help you plan while keeping the treatment goals in mind. Manage your symptoms with the help of a nurse or a professional caregiver. Breathlessness and pain can be expected if you have lung cancer. Get into a healthy lifestyle with home-cooked food. Make sure that you eat nutritious meals at regular intervals. Move around as much as you can afford to do, as it will keep your energy levels up. Avoid strenuous exercises. If you are bedridden or bound to a wheelchair, discuss with your doctor or physiotherapist about exercises. Learn yoga and meditation to help you relax and sleep peacefully. Getting enough sleep daily will keep your emotional energy up. Join a support group to share your emotional problems with people who have gone through similar experiences. Whether the diagnosis is made during the early stages of ALK-positive lung cancer or near stage 4, and whatever may be the life expectancy, remember you are not alone. Take necessary support, plan your days and face the treatment head-on so that you can beat cancer. Your doctor may advise you to go for ALK for NSCLC (IHC reflex to FISH) Test. IHC is immunohistochemistry, and FISH is Fluorescence in situ hybridisation. This test is approved for the diagnosis of lung cancer and to check the status of ALK. In the case of an ALK-positive test, your doctor may start targeted therapy such as the treatment of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Book your test now and get accurate and quick results at Metropolis.
The Evaluation of Infertility: Types, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment
Infertility is a condition where the couple trying to get pregnant is unable to conceive even after a year of regular, unprotected intercourse. Couples that do not meet the criteria of the specified duration can also seek the advice of a medical practitioner to assess their fertility levels. The causes of infertility can span physical, hormonal, and environmental factors among males, females, or both. Various conditions can cause infertility. Healthcare providers run a series of tests to diagnose infertility in couples. A general physical examination, assessment of medical history, hormonal profiles, ultrasound scans, and so on form the diagnosis to assess infertility. Types of Infertility Infertility evaluation starts with a general assessment of the patient’s medical history. Based on this, infertility is divided into two types. Primary Infertility It refers to couples who have never conceived previously and are not on any form of contraception. Secondary Infertility It indicates those couples who have previously had a successful pregnancy and are not able to conceive in the second attempt The nature of infertility can be of three types depending on the couple Male infertility - issues with the male reproductive system Female infertility - issues with the female reproductive system Unexplained infertility - when the definitive cause cannot be pointed out Infertility Causes: What are The Main Reasons? A complete examination of both partners involved can help diagnose and treat the cause of infertility from its root. Some common causes of infertility in males and females include the following: Age - Age is a decisive factor in the reproductive potential of both males and females. For males, the age of over 40 can lead to a potential reduction in the quality of the sperm. For women, the age of over 35 can lead to a decrease in the quality and number of eggs. Lifestyle factors - Exposure to chemicals, pesticides, sedentary lifestyle, smoking and consumption of alcohol affect fertility. Medical history of surgery - Any form of surgery in the pelvic region and reproductive organs impacts the ability to conceive. Genetic issues - Mutations in the Y chromosome, Klinefelter's syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, any chromosomal aberrations, single gene variants, microdeletions of genes and so on are also responsible for fertility issues. What Causes of Infertility in Males? For fertilization to take place, the male must contribute the sperm that fertilizes the female's egg. Defects in the production of sperm, abnormal shape or appearance of the sperm, disruptions to ejaculation, hormonal defects and so on can be a barrier to getting the partner pregnant. Hence, proper interventions can be decided for male infertility with the right diagnosis. Based on medical, past, and hormonal history, a fertility evaluation can be done. The main causes of male infertility include Genetic disorders relating to cystic fibrosis, Y microdeletions, Congenital absence of the vas deferens Obstructive disorders in the male reproductive system such as varicocele Injury or surgery in the pelvic region or testicles Misuse of steroids and excessive consumption of drugs and alcohol disrupt the level of hormones in the body Retrograde ejaculation (where the ejaculate is directed back to the bladder) Any form of cancer in the reproductive system Cryptorchidism (a congenital defect where the testis is undescended) Exposure to chemicals and high heat from saunas or tanning beds can affect the testicular temperature and production of sperm Infertility screening -Male and individual hormonal testing can further help in diagnosis of infertility in men. What Causes of Infertility in Females? The type of examinations to evaluate female infertility are personalized on the basis of their age, regularity of the menstrual cycle and previous medical history. Some of the common signs of infertility in women include Irregularities in the menstrual cycle Genetic anomalies such as fragile X syndrome and sickle cell anaemia Pelvic inflammatory diseases Ovarian insufficiency - less number of follicles in the ovary Hormonal imbalance or pituitary gland disorders Any blockage or polyp in the fallopian tubes Endometriosis - the growth of the endometrium outside the uterus Fibroids or myomas in the uterus Anti-sperm antibodies that can affect the sperm entering the uterus Polycystic ovarian syndrome, cysts and ovarian anomalies Ovarian cancer or effects of chemotherapy Diagnosis of infertility Based on the tests conducted for the male and the female partner, the medical practitioner concludes the type of diagnosis to be given. In the case of male infertility, the type of tests conducted may include Blood tests - These determine the hormonal levels of Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone. Semen analysis - A routine semen analysis is often the first step to evaluate the characteristics of semen. Qualities such as the total sperm count, volume of semen, and sperm morphology are noted. Karyotyping - This is a genetic test to check for suspected chromosomal abnormalities that may be passed on to the child. Chromosomal array - This technique is superior to karyotyping in terms of faster results and less issues with no-results. Ultrasound or testicular biopsy - It involves removing a little portion of the testicular tissue through a tiny cut in the scrotum. In the female partner, the healthcare provider may start with some basal investigations such as Blood tests - to record the oestrogen, FSH and LH levels, and a progesterone test Transvaginal ultrasound - to check the volume of the ovary, Antral follicle count, anatomy of the uterus, and any anomalies Hysterosalpingogram - to check if the fallopian tubes are free from blockages or if polyps or fibroids are present Laparoscopy - recommended in some cases to detect damage and blockage of pelvic structures, ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes Treatment for Male and Female Infertility A wide range of treatment options is available for both males and females. Based on the diagnosis, the type of treatment is personalized such that the best results are achieved. In some cases, fertility drugs or antioxidants are recommended to boost the health of the reproductive system. In others, surgery is recommended in females to remove any blockages in the ovaries or fallopian tubes and in men to treat conditions such as varicocele. If the tests detect a higher severity of infertility, the couple may require advanced treatment. It may involve intrauterine insemination (where a processed semen sample is inserted into the uterus). In some cases, vitro fertilisation (IVF, where the egg and sperm are cultured and fertilized in the lab) and intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, where a single, morphologically normal sperm is selected to be injected in the oocyte and grown in the lab) may be recommended. Some couples may even opt for third-party reproductive options such as using donor semen, donor egg, or choosing a gestational carrier or surrogate. Summary Hence, a thorough evaluation is needed to diagnose and detect the root cause and treat infertility effectively. It's best to consult health providers for a fertility assessment for routine health diagnosis or concerns related to infertility and the health of the reproductive system.
Thrombophilia in Pregnancy: Screening, Prevention and Treatment
Thrombophilia means the blood can easily form clots, sometimes even without injury. This is also called hypercoagulability. It occurs when the body generates too much clotting protein. Normally, when you get a cut or are injured, blood clots stop the bleeding. Later, your body breaks down the clot when it’s not needed anymore. When you have thrombophilia, the body makes too many blood clots or the old clots remain intact. In thrombophilia, the oxygen supply is cut off to other tissues and organs. It may result in a blood clot in the leg, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or a pulmonary embolism. It can also result in a heart attack or a stroke. Usually, the condition is asymptomatic unless a clot appears. Hence, estimating how many people are affected by thrombophilia is difficult. Thrombophilia can be inherited, or it can develop later in life. Types of Thrombophilia 1. Inherited types Factor V Leiden is a common genetic form that primarily affects Europeans. Genetic types of thrombophilia may have a high risk of multiple miscarriages. Even with this mutation, most women have normal pregnancies. Other inherited types include: Hereditary antithrombin deficiency Protein C deficiency Congenital dysfibrinogenemia Protein S deficiency 2. Acquired types Antiphospholipid syndrome is one of the most common acquired types of thrombophilia. About 70 per cent of those affected are women. The antiphospholipid syndrome may increase the risk of pregnancy-related complications such as: Preeclampsia Miscarriage Stillbirth Fewer birth weights Other causes of acquired thrombophilia include: Prolonged bed rest Cancer Acquired dysfibrinogenemia Traumatic injury Symptoms of Thrombophilia Thrombophilia doesn’t have any symptoms unless you have a blood clot. However, some symptoms include: Chest pain Lightheadedness Shortness of breath Pain in the upper back Fainting Dizziness Dry cough Coughing blood Recurrent miscarriage What are the Risk Factors of Thrombophilia? The following reasons can make you more susceptible to thrombophilia. Being overweight Pregnancy Smoking Cancer Diabetes Heart problems Prolonged bed rest Taking birth control pills Taking hormonal replacement therapy Old age Who Should be Tested for Thrombophilia? You should get tested for thrombophilia if: A family history of blood clots Blood clots in unusual areas You went through multiple miscarriages Thrombophilia in Pregnancy More than half of thromboembolic events during pregnancy are due to thrombophilia. Recurrent loss of pregnancy or miscarriage occurs in about 5% of women of reproductive age. Hereditary and acquired thrombophilia are responsible for approximately 50 per cent of thrombotic events diagnosed during pregnancy and postnatal. Some inherited thrombophilia factors like factor V Leiden mutation, protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency, antithrombin deficiency and prothrombin G20210A mutation may cause thromboembolism in pregnant women. Inherited thrombophilia is associated with fetal growth restriction. Studies have linked thrombophilia to adverse pregnancy outcomes, resulting in preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. It is assumed there might be a maternal predisposition to clotting that leads to thrombosis in the placental vasculature, eventually restricting the supply of oxygen and exchange of nutrients, resulting in fetal growth restriction. The following symptoms can accompany thrombophilia: Repeated miscarriages Preeclampsia Intrauterine growth restriction Neonatal fulminant purple HELLP syndrome Stillbirth Diagnosis for Thrombophilia Your doctor will recommend blood tests to measure the levels of clotting proteins. They will look for gene abnormalities and certain antibodies. These tests can decide your treatment choices, such as the type of blood thinner you should take and the duration. A screening test can help determine how often you will get blood clots and investigate whether any of your family members have thrombophilia. To understand the importance of test results, it is advisable to get help from a genetic counsellor. What are Thrombophilia Profile Tests? Thrombophilia does not cause visible symptoms. Even if you have the condition, you will not know unless you have a blood clot. Screening for thrombophilia includes: Antithrombin Lupus anticoagulant Prothrombin gene mutation Protein C Protein S anti-cardiolipin antibodies Factor V Leiden anti-β-2-glycoprotein-1 antibodies Icd 10 Thrombophilia Test is performed to check early haemorrhage before completion of 20 weeks of gestation. How is Thrombophilia Treated? You may not need treatment for thrombophilia until you get a blood clot or have a high risk of getting one. You may need a blood thinner as a long-term treatment if you have the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome form of thrombophilia. Women should avoid birth control pills that have oestrogen in them. Instead, you are advised to take progestin-only pills. Your doctor may advise avoiding hormone replacement therapy for menopause symptoms. Medications may include anticoagulants, such as warfarin or heparin, that will show the effect in a few days. For immediate blood clot treatment, you can use heparin for a better outcome. It is a fast-acting drug that can be used with warfarin. How to Prevent Blood Clots due to Thrombophilia? You can prevent unwanted blood clots by changing your lifestyle. You can: Maintain a healthy weight Stop smoking Exercise regularly Avoid sedentary lifestyle Get treatment for conditions that can cause thrombophilia Take your blood thinner medication regularly. Watch for any signs of bleeding, such as nosebleeds and blood in urine and stool. If you have any concerns with your blood thinner, immediately inform your doctor. People with cancer should always be aware of the latest screenings and medications because they have a high risk of developing blood clots. Closing thoughts Inherited thrombophilia cannot be prevented, whereas acquired thrombophilia can be prevented but not completely. To decrease your chances of developing blood clots, look for the warning signs and get treated immediately. Some people have thrombophilia but never develop blood clots, nor do they need treatment. But in some cases, doctors may recommend the long-term use of blood thinners and regular blood tests. Thrombophilia can be managed successfully by regular follow-ups with your doctor.
What is Celiac Disease and Its Symptoms and Causes In Adults?
Celiac disease is a type of autoimmune disease in which gluten triggers the immune system response and damages the small intestine. One in every 100 people worldwide has celiac disease, and many are ignorant of their illness. According to estimates, up to 2.5 million people in the US may be living with celiac disease undetected. Symptoms are triggered when you ingest gluten, a type of protein. In order to relieve these symptoms, you can avoid gluten, and change your diet to a gluten-free diet. Eliminating gluten from one's diet is the only method to avoid experiencing its symptoms. The procedure of diagnosis, risk factors, and gluten-free diets are covered in further detail below, along with the symptoms of celiac disease. Celiac disease mainly harms the small intestine. There are two types of gluten sensitivity - Celiac disease: There are specific markers in the blood that help determine the diagnosis. Non-celiac disease: There are no specific markers; thus, the diagnosis requires symptoms. Symptoms of Celiac Disease The symptoms of celiac disease range from minor to severe. They may vary from person to person and evolve. Some individuals never exhibit symptoms or only do so later in life. It's possible that unless one develops anaemia or a nutritional shortage, they are unaware that they have celiac disease. Diarrhea Bloating Gas Abdominal pain Nausea and vomiting Constipation Fatigue Weight loss However, adults with celiac disease have signs and symptoms that are not related to the digestive system, including: Anemia, mostly due to iron deficiency Itchiness Dermatitis herpetiformis Ulcers in mouth Headaches Fatigue Numbness and tingling in the feet and hands, cognitive impairment, and problems with balance. Joint pain Loss of bone density (osteoporosis) or bone softening (osteomalacia) The functioning of the spleen is reduced Children having celiac disease have more digestive problems compared to adults, which include: Nausea Vomiting Constipation Gas Swollen belly Foul-smelling stools Chronic diarrhea One of the conditions in people with celiac disease is nutrient deficiency because the damage to the intestine will slowly restrict the absorption of nutrients leading to vitamin deficiency. Because of the same reason, a person may appear anemic due to iron deficiency. Causes of Celiac Disease The purpose of our immune system is to protect us from foreign invaders. If you have celiac disease, and you eat food containing gluten, your immune system attacks the lining of your gut. This causes inflammation in the intestines and damages the villi. The villi are the hair-like structures on the lining of the small intestine that help in the absorption of nutrients. When the villi get damaged, they cannot absorb nutrients, and no matter how much you eat, ultimately you will develop malnutrition. Risk factors of Celiac Disease The disease is common in Caucasians and people who have other diseases, including: A family history of celiac disease Type 1 diabetes Down syndrome Autoimmune thyroid disease Microscopic colitis Addison’s disease Rheumatoid arthritis Multiple Sclerosis Autoimmune hepatitis Turner syndrome Celiac Disease Complications It can be dangerous if you leave it untreated. Complications may include: Cancer, such as intestinal lymphoma and small bowel cancer Damaged tooth enamel Miscarriage and Infertility Malnutrition Lactose intolerance Neurological problems like seizure Pain and numbness in your hands and feet Pancreatic disease Weak bones Diagnosis of Celiac Disease Many people with celiac disease are not aware of their disease conditions. In order to diagnose, you have to get blood tests or endoscopy done. Serological tests can be used as a screening test to select patients for endoscopy and biopsy. Serology testing is done to determine the levels of antibodies in your blood. High levels of certain antibody proteins signify there is an immune reaction to gluten. It is crucial to perform the tests before having a gluten-free diet. If you remove gluten from your diet, the blood tests will apparently show normal results. Tests include antibodies against tTG, gliadin and endomysium. Your healthcare provider may recommend a few other tests to check for any nutritional deficiency, such as an iron deficiency test. Genetic testing is performed like HLA (human leukocyte antigens) testing (HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8) that can be done to rule out celiac disease. If your results indicate that you have celiac disease, your doctor will mostly refer a few more tests like: Endoscopy. A long tube with a tiny camera is inserted into your mouth and passed down to your throat. The camera will allow the doctor to see your small intestine and will help to take a biopsy (small tissue) to view the damages of the villi. Celiac Disease Diet The symptoms of celiac disease are significantly reduced when one switches to a gluten-free diet. A person can see relief within a few days or weeks. In newborns, the small intestine heals typically in three to six months. Complete recovery might take several years for adults. Following a gluten-free diet has become simpler over time as gluten-free options are easily available. The body can effectively absorb nutrients from meals as the digestive system recovers. Foods to Avoid: Wheat, rye, and barley all naturally contain the protein gluten. Most grains, pasta, cereals, and processed meals all contain gluten. Gluten may also be present in alcoholic beverages manufactured from grains. Foods That Don't Contain Gluten: Meat and seafood Vegetables and fruits Grains such as buckwheat, amaranth, and rice. Pasta and cereals made from rice, corn, millet, sorghum, and Teff. Treatment of Celiac Disease Patients should avoid any food that has gluten in it, including wheat, barley, or rye. Your doctor will recommend you visit a dietician for a formal diet plan. Eliminating gluten from your diet will gradually decrease the inflammation of your gut, you will experience a change you will feel better and eventually heal. However, the complete healing of villi will take months to years. It often takes too long to heal in adults, like two to three years compared to six months in children. You will need regular follow-up and have to remain on this diet for the rest of your life. Even consuming a little quantity of gluten can have an adverse effect on your intestine and your symptoms will return. Even with celiac disease, you can still eat a healthy well-balanced diet. For example, bread and pasta are available made out of other types of flour (corn, soy, and rice). Gluten-free fresh fruits, vegetables, fish, and meats are also available in the market, you can consume them since it’s not been artificially processed. Medication like diamino diphenyl sulfone (Dapsone) helps relieve the symptoms of Dermatitis herpetiformis. Vitamin and mineral supplements can help people with celiac disease prevent or address deficits. Treatments that might lessen the pain of those with celiac disease and improve long-term recovery chances are still being investigated by researchers. The Celiac Disease Foundation provides further information on potential future therapies. How can I prevent Celiac Disease? Celiac disease cannot be cured. However, early detection and management of celiac disease like following a gluten-free diet may prevent the severity of the disease. Therefore, it is very crucial to get yourself checked if you are experiencing any symptoms of celiac disease. Especially if you have a high risk of having the condition. Conclusion Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that can cause numerous symptoms including, digestive difficulties, nervous system problems, weight loss, nutritional deficiencies, and fatigue. However, symptoms of celiac disease vary from person to person . If you have celiac disease, a gluten-free diet is vital for your health. A gluten-free diet will be a big change and challenge in your life. You have to follow gluten-free eating habits strictly that will help you to manage your condition, and eventually, it will reduce your symptoms. Speak to your doctor, if you are doubtful about having celiac disease and get yourself tested.
All You Need to Know About Myelodysplastic Syndrome
What is Myelodysplastic Syndrome? Myelodysplastic Syndrome, or MDS, is a serious and rare blood disorder. It is a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow and can cause a decrease or loss in the number of white blood cells. MDS is most often diagnosed in adults aged 25 to 50 but can also occur in younger adults and children. Some common treatments for MDS are chemotherapy and stem cell transplants. Alternative treatments for MDS are immunotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) Panel by FISH Test This FISH panel is made to identify the most prevalent and prognostically-important abnormalities in MDS. FISH studies are helpful supplements to complete chromosome studies, especially when monitoring an abnormal clone, determining relapse and progression, or when there is insufficient material for chromosomal analysis. Get your FISH test Done if you Experience Any Symptoms Like Fatigue Shortness of breath Easy bruising Frequent infections Thrombocytopenia Unusual paleness Anaemia Easy bleeding Pinpoint-sized red spots just beneath the skin Treatments for MDS The main goals of myelodysplastic syndrome treatment are to decrease the condition's progression, relieve symptoms, and avoid consequences. Myelodysplastic syndrome has no known cure, but some drugs may reduce the disease's progression. You might not need therapy right away if you are symptom-free. Instead, your doctor may advise routine checkups and lab testing to monitor your health and determine whether the disease is advancing. Here are Some Common Treatments for MDS: 1. Blood Transfusion Red blood cells and platelets in MDS patients can be replaced with healthy blood cells by blood transfusion. It can help manage symptoms. 2. Stem Cell Transplantation Depending on the source of the replacement blood stem cells, there are two forms of stem cell transplantation: allogeneic (ALLO) and autologous (AUTO). While AUTO uses the patient's stem cells, ALLO uses donated stem cells. In all cases, the objective is to use substantial doses of chemotherapy and radiation therapy to eradicate all unhealthy cells from the bone marrow, blood, and other regions of the body before allowing new blood stem cells to regenerate healthy bone marrow. For MDS patients, an ALLO transplant is advised frequently. 3. Medications Below are some types of drugs that can be used for the treatment of MDS: Drug with growth factors- These drugs are synthetic versions of elements that occur naturally in your bone marrow. Growth agents encouraging the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells may decrease your requirement for regular blood transfusions. Your risk of infection may be reduced by growth agents that encourage the formation of white blood cells. Medications to activate blood cell maturation- People not aided by drugs with growth factors and drugs encouraging blood cells to mature can lessen the need for frequent blood transfusions. Some of these medications may help alleviate the possibility of the illness developing into leukaemia. Drugs that resist the immunological system- Medications that suppress or regulate the immune system are used to lessen the need for red blood cell transfusions in some MDS patients. Medication for genetic anomaly- Your doctor may advise lenalidomide if the gene mutation isolated del(5q) is linked to your myelodysplastic syndrome (Revlimid). Drugs that eliminate infections- You will receive medications to manage infections if your condition worsens. Common drugs for the treatment of MDS: Hypomethylating drugs [Azacitidine (Vidaza), Decitabine (Dacogen)], Conventional drugs [Cytarabine (Cytosar-U), Daunorubicin (Cerubidine), Idarubicin (Idamycin)], Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiD) [Lenalidomide (Revlimid)]. Alternative Treatments for MDS 1. Immunotherapy Biologic therapy, also known as immunotherapy, is intended to strengthen the body's inherent defences against MDS. It uses substances that can be produced by the body or in a lab to enhance, target, or restore immune system function. Although therapy is rarely used for MDS, some individuals may benefit from it. Antithymocyte globulin (ATGAM, Thymoglobulin), a kind of immunotherapy for MDS, is administered following chemotherapy. However, immunotherapy can cause complications in some cases. 2. Bone Marrow Transplantation The only treatment available today that can induce long-lasting remission is high-dose chemotherapy combined with a bone marrow/stem cell transplant. However, because transplantation carries a higher risk of side effects, it may not be suggested for older people or people with existing health issues. A transplant, however, might be an option for people between 50 and 75 after less intense therapy. Your doctor will discuss the risks of transplantation with you before recommending it. They will also consider your age and general health, the subtype of MDS, the outcomes of any prior treatments, and many other things. In a bone marrow transplant, unhealthy cell-containing bone marrow is replaced with highly specialised cells, known as hematopoietic stem cells, which lead to the development of healthy bone marrow. Blood-forming cells called hematopoietic stem cells can be present in the bone marrow and circulation. Since blood stem cells are often transplanted instead of actual bone marrow tissue, the technique is now more frequently referred to as a stem cell transplant than a bone marrow transplant. Conclusion Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a rare condition that leads to mild to moderate illness, often resulting in long-term health problems. It is a condition that results when the mycelium cells of the spinal cord and brain are destroyed. It can result from ischemic or chronic damage to the body, such as a stroke, tumour, or a combination of both.
Can Iron Deficiency Anemia Be Prevented? Here’s What You Need to Know
Iron is an essential nutrient for the body's general growth and development. In addition, it serves vital activities like oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and muscle metabolism. Iron is essential when your body is growing, transforming, or changing. Lack of iron in the diet and increased demand in the body are common causes of iron deficiency in pregnancy and pediatrics. Iron deficiency can result in anemia, which lowers your hemoglobin levels. According to WHO figures, anemia affects 33% of non-pregnant women, 40% of pregnant women, and 42% of children globally. A lack of iron does not pose a threat to life. However, it might cause serious health issues. For instance, it results in dyspnea and exhaustion. The good news is that an iron-rich diet and supplementation can effectively prevent an iron deficiency. Causes of Iron Deficiency Anemia As its name suggests, iron deficiency anemia is caused by a lack of iron, blood flow, and a lack of iron-rich foods in the diet. Below are common causes of iron deficiency anemia. Increased Iron Demand The body's need for iron changes during the different phases of a person's life. For example, the years between childhood and adolescence are vital for growth. As a result, you must ensure you're getting enough iron-rich meals. Additionally, the need for iron rises during pregnancy; this is the prime cause of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy. Low Absorption Of Iron Several conditions and surgical procedures may hinder iron absorption. For example, Crohn's disease and celiac disease are common causes of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, gastric bypass patients may not be able to absorb iron. These issues might prevent the gut from absorbing iron. Blood Loss Blood loss is among the common causes of iron deficiency anemia in adults. For instance, it could be brought on by blood loss from an injury, menstruation, etc. According to studies, conditions including gastric ulcer, hernia, and colorectal cancer can cause internal bleeding. In addition, heavy periods of women may be more likely to develop anemia. Diet The most common cause of iron deficiency anemia in children and adults is diet. A variety of nutritional factors affect how well iron is absorbed. Non-heme iron, which is of low quality, is present in vegetarian and vegan meals. Heme iron is present in non-vegetarian sources, in contrast. The rate of absorption is higher for heme iron. Vitamin C It is a necessary nutrient for the absorption of iron. Therefore, foods high in vitamin C may transform iron into a readily absorbable form. As a result, a deficiency in foods high in vitamin C is a common cause of iron deficiency anemia in adults. Phytates Some antinutrients interfere with non-heme iron absorption. For example, soybeans, black beans, lentils, split beans, mung beans, unrefined rice, cereals, and mung beans all contain phytates, which are antinutrients. When combined with iron-rich foods, they reduce your iron absorption. Calcium Although the exact mechanism is still unclear, experts think calcium prevents both heme and non-heme iron from being absorbed. Excess calcium causes iron deficiency anemia in pediatrics. Children who consume an excess of cow milk lack iron and have excess calcium, contributing to iron deficiency anemia. Symptoms of Iron Deficiency Anemia Depending on the severity, iron deficiency symptoms can vary. The list of iron deficiency symptoms is provided below. Fatigue Shortness of Breath Irregular Heartbeat/Palpitations Compromised Immune Health Pale Skin Hairfall Sore Mouth Headaches Spoon-Shaped Nails Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anemia Anemia can be easily detected through a complete blood count (CBC) with peripheral smear. Through this test it is possible to identify type of anemia and it may further give a clue to do further supplemental tests like i.e., serum iron studies, vitamin levels and identification of abnormal hemoglobinopathy for arriving at the correct diagnosis for the patient. Prevention of Iron Deficiency Anemia Good eating habits can help you avoid iron deficiency. Iron levels in the body may rise with the consumption of iron-rich meals. Here’s some simple dietary advice that can enable you to prevent iron deficiency anemia. Meat Iron content is exceptionally high in poultry and fish. Salmon and tuna are two more types of meat that are high in iron. To combat an iron shortage, incorporate one of these into your diet two or three times per week. Meat sources have a higher absorption rate of iron than plant sources. Eggs Iron, protein, and vitamins are all found in abundance in eggs. For example, about 9.7% of iron is present in every 100 grams of egg. Legumes Lentils are an excellent source of iron for vegetarians. Lentils provide abundant iron; eat it in salad or dal. Fruits and nuts Dry fruits like apricots are a rich source of iron. Iron can also be found in nuts, seeds, beans, tofu, and iron-fortified cereals. Vitamin C Iron absorption requires vitamin C. Vegetarian sources are rich in non-heme iron. They can eat it. Citrus fruits, bell peppers, and broccoli are food sources of vitamin C. Hydration Did you know drinking water is a reliable method of preventing human iron deficiency anemia? Researchers say drinking water locally enriched with iron compounds should be considered and used as a globally accessible means of controlling iron-deficiency anemia. Leafy Greens Leafy greens, such as spinach and kale, are a rich source of folate, which is necessary to avoid anemia. Additionally, leafy vegetables may further improve general wellness. Avoid Antinutrients Antinutrients can impede the absorption of iron. As a result, you should refrain from pairing meals high in iron with antinutrients like tea, coffee, and dairy products. These foods have antinutrients such as tannins, oxalic acids, and phytic acids that bind to iron and stop it from being absorbed. Don't combine calcium and iron-rich foods It is well known that calcium and iron vie for the same receptors. Therefore, according to experts, calcium and iron-rich diets prevent the body from absorbing iron. Conclusion Although iron deficiency is common among people due to poor eating habits, it can also be brought on by non-dietary practices. Iron deficiency is the main contributor to anemia. Healthy eating practices are crucial as a result. Follow the simple food recommendations detailed in the article to prevent iron deficiency and have an overall healthy life. But always remember to get advice from a professional before adding iron supplements. If you experience any symptoms, get the Anemia Profile-Maxi Test for accurate diagnosis.