Hypertension and High Cholesterol: How Are They Connected?
Early-life hypertension and LDL cholesterol can impact your future heart health. Keeping your blood pressure and cholesterol at the proper levels as a young adult can minimise the risk of heart disease, heart failure and stroke later in life. Your heart and blood arteries can be affected more quickly when your cholesterol and blood pressure levels are increased even if they are just mildly elevated. They can eventually lead to heart attacks, strokes and other issues like kidney failure and vision loss if hypertension and cholesterol treatment is not done on time. What Does Hypertension Mean? Blood flowing through the body's vessels naturally exerts pressure on the vessel walls. Pressure is essential to carry oxygen-rich blood safely throughout the body. Blood pressure measures artery wall pressure. Healthcare workers measure blood pressure to ensure that it is within a safe range for blood to move throughout your body. ‘Hypertension’ is the term used for elevated blood pressure. Untreated hypertension can result in a heart problem, stroke, blindness or kidney failure. In addition, some individuals with extremely high blood pressure may have headaches and breathing difficulty. What Does It Mean To Have High Cholesterol? High cholesterol is the influence of an excessive amount of waxy material derived from fats in the blood. While some fat in the blood is normal and beneficial, excessive cholesterol can be detrimental to one's health. Plaque refers to the accumulation of cholesterol and other substances on the inside walls of blood vessels. The plaque can block blood flow, either partially or completely throughout your body. High cholesterol is a critical cardiovascular disease risk factor. So your doctor can test your blood to check your cholesterol level and see if you are more likely to get heart disease. Potential Health Hazards High cholesterol and hypertension lead to atherosclerosis, which causes strokes and heart attacks. Atherosclerosis is the accumulation of plaque within the blood arteries. Among the complications of atherosclerosis are: Cardiovascular atherosclerosis: It is the development of plaque in the heart-feeding arteries, resulting in heart attacks, cardiac failure, and death. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): Plaque development in the arteries of the legs can lead to claudication, which is stiffness in the legs that is eased only by resting them. These blockages can cause limb ischemia, which causes non-healing injuries that may require amputation. Carotid atherosclerosis: Plaque in the internal carotid artery of the neck can obstruct blood circulation, break off theflow to the brain, causing a stroke. Mesenteric ischemia: Plaque formation in the blood arteries supplying the gut can result in ‘gut ischemia’, causing pain and weight loss. What Does Happen To Your Arteries When You Have High Cholesterol? Blood vessels can be damaged, and plaque in the arteries can form due to high cholesterol levels. As a result, people with high cholesterol have a higher chance of getting heart disease and are more likely to have sudden problems like a heart attack or stroke. What Does Happen To Your Arteries When You Have High Blood Pressure? Hypertension can cause damage to your arteries by causing them to be stiff and brittle, reducing the oxygenated blood supply to your heart and other vital organs, including your brain, kidneys and eyes. What Is The Connection Between Hypertension And High Cholesterol? Both elevated blood pressure and cholesterol are risk factors for peripheral artery disease. Blockages or narrowings of the arteries in the extremities and limbs are the root causes of peripheral artery disease. If hypertension and cholesterol is left untreated, the peripheral arterial disease can cause heart attacks, strokes, amputations and death. High blood pressure for an extended period (more than 120/80) can cause the arteries to become less elastic. It can also stimulate plaque accumulation in the artery walls, increasing the risk of blockages. High cholesterol levels may lead to plaque production and obstruction of peripheral arteries. Preventive Measures To Avoid Hypertension And Cholesterol Some medications are successful at controlling both hypertension and cholesterol. You can also change your lifestyle to help your circulatory system and protect yourself from harmful effects by: Quitting smoking Making an effort to be physically active for at least half an hour a day, with strength training at least twice a week Eating foods high in fibre (such as fruits and vegetables) and nutritious fats (like fish and nuts) if you want to maintain a healthy weight Avoiding excessive high-cholesterol foods, fatty foods, sodium and sugar How Can The Risk Of High Cholesterol And Hypertension Be Reduced? Dietary modifications: You can control your cholesterol levels by changing your diet. Eat less foods that are high in sugar, saturated fat and trans fat and more foods high in fibre and green leafy vegetables, such as spinach and kale. Reducing your sodium and alcohol intake and increasing the potassium content in your diet can help lower blood pressure. Exercise: Aerobic exercise lowers LDL ('bad') cholesterol and raises HDL ('good') cholesterol. Regular physical exercise and a healthy diet can both help lower blood pressure. Weight maintenance: Being overweight can raise hypertension and cholesterol levels. Maintaining a healthy weight is one way to alleviate this problem. Medication: A change in diet and exercise alone may not be sufficient to lower cholesterol or blood pressure in some people. In addition to following a healthy lifestyle, medication may be prescribed for hypertension and cholesterol treatment. Taking proper medication reduces inflammation, preventing or slowing the advancement of plaque accumulation in blood vessels. Hypertension is treated with anti-hypertensive medicine. Closing Thoughts Even if you do not have hypertension in addition to the high cholesterol, you are still at risk for heart disease and stroke. Check your blood pressure and cholesterol levels periodically, and adopt a healthy lifestyle for hypertension and cholesterol treatment. If necessary, you should take medication to lower hypertension and cholesterol if advised by a doctor. Diabetes mellitus further adds to the risk along with hypertension and cholesterol. Regular testing of Diabetes mellitus, cholesterol levels and other factors that contribute to heart diseases should thus be recommended. There are various tests such as Lipid profile screening, full body check-up and blood glucose level testing that can be done as per the doctor’s recommendation. Apart from these there are specific tests available to assess the cardiac health and risk of cardiac diseases.
Thrombophilia in Pregnancy: Screening, Prevention and Treatment
Thrombophilia means the blood can easily form clots, sometimes even without injury. This is also called hypercoagulability. It occurs when the body generates too much clotting protein. Normally, when you get a cut or are injured, blood clots stop the bleeding. Later, your body breaks down the clot when it’s not needed anymore. When you have thrombophilia, the body makes too many blood clots or the old clots remain intact. In thrombophilia, the oxygen supply is cut off to other tissues and organs. It may result in a blood clot in the leg, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or a pulmonary embolism. It can also result in a heart attack or a stroke. Usually, the condition is asymptomatic unless a clot appears. Hence, estimating how many people are affected by thrombophilia is difficult. Thrombophilia can be inherited, or it can develop later in life. Types of Thrombophilia 1. Inherited types Factor V Leiden is a common genetic form that primarily affects Europeans. Genetic types of thrombophilia may have a high risk of multiple miscarriages. Even with this mutation, most women have normal pregnancies. Other inherited types include: Hereditary antithrombin deficiency Protein C deficiency Congenital dysfibrinogenemia Protein S deficiency 2. Acquired types Antiphospholipid syndrome is one of the most common acquired types of thrombophilia. About 70 per cent of those affected are women. The antiphospholipid syndrome may increase the risk of pregnancy-related complications such as: Preeclampsia Miscarriage Stillbirth Fewer birth weights Other causes of acquired thrombophilia include: Prolonged bed rest Cancer Acquired dysfibrinogenemia Traumatic injury Symptoms of Thrombophilia Thrombophilia doesn’t have any symptoms unless you have a blood clot. However, some symptoms include: Chest pain Lightheadedness Shortness of breath Pain in the upper back Fainting Dizziness Dry cough Coughing blood Recurrent miscarriage What are the Risk Factors of Thrombophilia? The following reasons can make you more susceptible to thrombophilia. Being overweight Pregnancy Smoking Cancer Diabetes Heart problems Prolonged bed rest Taking birth control pills Taking hormonal replacement therapy Old age Who Should be Tested for Thrombophilia? You should get tested for thrombophilia if: A family history of blood clots Blood clots in unusual areas You went through multiple miscarriages Thrombophilia in Pregnancy More than half of thromboembolic events during pregnancy are due to thrombophilia. Recurrent loss of pregnancy or miscarriage occurs in about 5% of women of reproductive age. Hereditary and acquired thrombophilia are responsible for approximately 50 per cent of thrombotic events diagnosed during pregnancy and postnatal. Some inherited thrombophilia factors like factor V Leiden mutation, protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency, antithrombin deficiency and prothrombin G20210A mutation may cause thromboembolism in pregnant women. Inherited thrombophilia is associated with fetal growth restriction. Studies have linked thrombophilia to adverse pregnancy outcomes, resulting in preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. It is assumed there might be a maternal predisposition to clotting that leads to thrombosis in the placental vasculature, eventually restricting the supply of oxygen and exchange of nutrients, resulting in fetal growth restriction. The following symptoms can accompany thrombophilia: Repeated miscarriages Preeclampsia Intrauterine growth restriction Neonatal fulminant purple HELLP syndrome Stillbirth Diagnosis for Thrombophilia Your doctor will recommend blood tests to measure the levels of clotting proteins. They will look for gene abnormalities and certain antibodies. These tests can decide your treatment choices, such as the type of blood thinner you should take and the duration. A screening test can help determine how often you will get blood clots and investigate whether any of your family members have thrombophilia. To understand the importance of test results, it is advisable to get help from a genetic counsellor. What are Thrombophilia Profile Tests? Thrombophilia does not cause visible symptoms. Even if you have the condition, you will not know unless you have a blood clot. Screening for thrombophilia includes: Antithrombin Lupus anticoagulant Prothrombin gene mutation Protein C Protein S anti-cardiolipin antibodies Factor V Leiden anti-β-2-glycoprotein-1 antibodies Icd 10 Thrombophilia Test is performed to check early haemorrhage before completion of 20 weeks of gestation. How is Thrombophilia Treated? You may not need treatment for thrombophilia until you get a blood clot or have a high risk of getting one. You may need a blood thinner as a long-term treatment if you have the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome form of thrombophilia. Women should avoid birth control pills that have oestrogen in them. Instead, you are advised to take progestin-only pills. Your doctor may advise avoiding hormone replacement therapy for menopause symptoms. Medications may include anticoagulants, such as warfarin or heparin, that will show the effect in a few days. For immediate blood clot treatment, you can use heparin for a better outcome. It is a fast-acting drug that can be used with warfarin. How to Prevent Blood Clots due to Thrombophilia? You can prevent unwanted blood clots by changing your lifestyle. You can: Maintain a healthy weight Stop smoking Exercise regularly Avoid sedentary lifestyle Get treatment for conditions that can cause thrombophilia Take your blood thinner medication regularly. Watch for any signs of bleeding, such as nosebleeds and blood in urine and stool. If you have any concerns with your blood thinner, immediately inform your doctor. People with cancer should always be aware of the latest screenings and medications because they have a high risk of developing blood clots. Closing thoughts Inherited thrombophilia cannot be prevented, whereas acquired thrombophilia can be prevented but not completely. To decrease your chances of developing blood clots, look for the warning signs and get treated immediately. Some people have thrombophilia but never develop blood clots, nor do they need treatment. But in some cases, doctors may recommend the long-term use of blood thinners and regular blood tests. Thrombophilia can be managed successfully by regular follow-ups with your doctor.
Food Allergy Rashes: Causes, Treatments, and Natural Remedies
Food allergy rashes are skin reactions that occur after eating certain foods. The rash may be itchy and red and can occur on any body part. Food allergies are caused by an immune system response to a food protein that the body perceives as harmful. In 2021, it was estimated that 32 million Americans would have food allergy rashes, including 5.6 million children. There are different types of food allergy rashes, each with its symptoms. The most common food allergy rash is atopic dermatitis, also known as eczema. Eczema is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition that causes dry, itchy skin. Food allergies can also cause hives, also known as urticaria. Hives are raised, and red welts on the skin can be itchy or painful. They are often caused by an allergic reaction to a food or medication. Other less common food allergy rashes include contact dermatitis and angioedema. Food allergies are common in children, and most go away independently. Although this is not always the case, food allergies generally outgrow in children. Food allergies can also happen later in life, but they are unusual. While you may feel symptoms of other diseases, your body's reaction to the poisoning will be unique. However, different types of food allergy rashes on the body are typical indicators, and their symptoms include: tingling in the mouth itching swelling of the lips, tongue, or throat wheezing or difficulty breathing nausea and vomiting abdominal pain or cramps Food Allergy Rashes Causes According to the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, children's most frequent food allergies are milk, eggs, and peanuts. According to experts, children outgrow milk, egg, soy, and wheat allergies at a rate of up to 25%. Peanut allergies, in particular, appear to be on the decline. In addition to wheat, numerous European countries have additional top allergens, including sesame, celery, lupin (a legume), and mustard. In the United States, sesame is becoming increasingly frequent. The body’s immune system mistakenly identifies a harmless food protein as a threat in people with food allergies. When the person eats the offending food, the immune system overreacts and releases chemicals that cause symptoms. The most common food allergens are proteins found in eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Food Allergy Rashes Treatments The best food allergy rashes treatment is to avoid the offending food. This can be difficult, especially if you’re allergic to everyday food items like milk or wheat, which are ubiquitous. If you have a severe allergy, you may need to carry an epinephrine auto-injector (such as an EpiPen) with you at all times in case of accidental exposure. For severe allergies, your doctor may prescribe a corticosteroid such as prednisone. Corticosteroids can be taken orally or injected. They are generally safe but can have side effects such as weight gain and mood swings. If you have a mild allergy, your doctor may recommend antihistamines to relieve symptoms. Antihistamines can be taken orally or applied topically (to the skin). However, they don’t work for everyone and may cause drowsiness. The following tests can help the doctor diagnose a food allergy: Blood test: This test looks for antibodies specific to certain food proteins, indicating an allergy. For instance, if you're allergic to peanuts, the test may reveal high levels of antibodies to a peanut protein called Ara h 2. Food diary: The individual records everything they eat and describes any emerging symptoms. For instance, if you think you're allergic to eggs but don't experience any symptoms after eating them, you're likely not allergic. Physician-supervised blinded oral food challenge: A food allergy can be very difficult to diagnose, especially in children. A physician administers a suspected food allergen in increasing doses to the individual over time, with close monitoring for symptoms. This method eliminates the risk of psychosomatic reactions. Food Allergy Rashes Natural Remedies Several natural remedies can help relieve symptoms of food allergy rashes. Some of them are: Probiotics Probiotics can help reduce inflammation and improve gut health. They are available in supplements or fermented foods such as yoghurt and sauerkraut. Probiotics are live microorganisms similar to the beneficial bacteria found in the gut. Vitamin C Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant that can help reduce inflammation. Vitamin C supplements are widely available, or you can get your daily dose from foods such as oranges, strawberries, bell peppers, and broccoli. Ginger Ginger is a well-known remedy for nausea and vomiting. It can also help relieve inflammation and pain. Ginger is available in supplement form or as a spice that you can add to your food. Quercetin Quercetin is a plant compound that has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. You can find quercetin in supplements and food items such as onions, apples, and green tea. Butterbur Butterbur is a plant that has been used for centuries to treat various ailments, including allergies. Butterbur extract is available in supplement form and is effective in treating seasonal allergies. Bromelain Bromelain is an enzyme found in pineapples that has anti-inflammatory properties. Bromelain supplements are often taken to reduce inflammation and swelling associated with injuries, surgery, and inflammatory conditions such as arthritis. Conclusion People often have allergic responses to specific allergens, such as pet dander and pollen, as well as compounds in foods, beverages, and personal hygiene products. The source determines the best way to treat an allergic reaction, although most minor instances may be treated with OTC antihistamine and anti-itch medicines. If you have been diagnosed with chronic or severe food allergy rashes symptoms, such as throat swelling or a change in heart rate, you should go to the hospital immediately. Anaphylaxis must always be treated as a medical emergency. Are you willing to know whether you're intolerant to any food? Take our Food Intolerance Test and find out for sure! Accurate and reliable, our test can detect up to 140 different food intolerances and is vegetarian-friendly. So why not give it a try today?
What is Celiac Disease and Its Symptoms and Causes In Adults?
Celiac disease is a type of autoimmune disease in which gluten triggers the immune system response and damages the small intestine. One in every 100 people worldwide has celiac disease, and many are ignorant of their illness. According to estimates, up to 2.5 million people in the US may be living with celiac disease undetected. Symptoms are triggered when you ingest gluten, a type of protein. In order to relieve these symptoms, you can avoid gluten, and change your diet to a gluten-free diet. Eliminating gluten from one's diet is the only method to avoid experiencing its symptoms. The procedure of diagnosis, risk factors, and gluten-free diets are covered in further detail below, along with the symptoms of celiac disease. Celiac disease mainly harms the small intestine. There are two types of gluten sensitivity - Celiac disease: There are specific markers in the blood that help determine the diagnosis. Non-celiac disease: There are no specific markers; thus, the diagnosis requires symptoms. Symptoms of Celiac Disease The symptoms of celiac disease range from minor to severe. They may vary from person to person and evolve. Some individuals never exhibit symptoms or only do so later in life. It's possible that unless one develops anaemia or a nutritional shortage, they are unaware that they have celiac disease. Diarrhea Bloating Gas Abdominal pain Nausea and vomiting Constipation Fatigue Weight loss However, adults with celiac disease have signs and symptoms that are not related to the digestive system, including: Anemia, mostly due to iron deficiency Itchiness Dermatitis herpetiformis Ulcers in mouth Headaches Fatigue Numbness and tingling in the feet and hands, cognitive impairment, and problems with balance. Joint pain Loss of bone density (osteoporosis) or bone softening (osteomalacia) The functioning of the spleen is reduced Children having celiac disease have more digestive problems compared to adults, which include: Nausea Vomiting Constipation Gas Swollen belly Foul-smelling stools Chronic diarrhea One of the conditions in people with celiac disease is nutrient deficiency because the damage to the intestine will slowly restrict the absorption of nutrients leading to vitamin deficiency. Because of the same reason, a person may appear anemic due to iron deficiency. Causes of Celiac Disease The purpose of our immune system is to protect us from foreign invaders. If you have celiac disease, and you eat food containing gluten, your immune system attacks the lining of your gut. This causes inflammation in the intestines and damages the villi. The villi are the hair-like structures on the lining of the small intestine that help in the absorption of nutrients. When the villi get damaged, they cannot absorb nutrients, and no matter how much you eat, ultimately you will develop malnutrition. Risk factors of Celiac Disease The disease is common in Caucasians and people who have other diseases, including: A family history of celiac disease Type 1 diabetes Down syndrome Autoimmune thyroid disease Microscopic colitis Addison’s disease Rheumatoid arthritis Multiple Sclerosis Autoimmune hepatitis Turner syndrome Celiac Disease Complications It can be dangerous if you leave it untreated. Complications may include: Cancer, such as intestinal lymphoma and small bowel cancer Damaged tooth enamel Miscarriage and Infertility Malnutrition Lactose intolerance Neurological problems like seizure Pain and numbness in your hands and feet Pancreatic disease Weak bones Diagnosis of Celiac Disease Many people with celiac disease are not aware of their disease conditions. In order to diagnose, you have to get blood tests or endoscopy done. Serological tests can be used as a screening test to select patients for endoscopy and biopsy. Serology testing is done to determine the levels of antibodies in your blood. High levels of certain antibody proteins signify there is an immune reaction to gluten. It is crucial to perform the tests before having a gluten-free diet. If you remove gluten from your diet, the blood tests will apparently show normal results. Tests include antibodies against tTG, gliadin and endomysium. Your healthcare provider may recommend a few other tests to check for any nutritional deficiency, such as an iron deficiency test. Genetic testing is performed like HLA (human leukocyte antigens) testing (HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8) that can be done to rule out celiac disease. If your results indicate that you have celiac disease, your doctor will mostly refer a few more tests like: Endoscopy. A long tube with a tiny camera is inserted into your mouth and passed down to your throat. The camera will allow the doctor to see your small intestine and will help to take a biopsy (small tissue) to view the damages of the villi. Celiac Disease Diet The symptoms of celiac disease are significantly reduced when one switches to a gluten-free diet. A person can see relief within a few days or weeks. In newborns, the small intestine heals typically in three to six months. Complete recovery might take several years for adults. Following a gluten-free diet has become simpler over time as gluten-free options are easily available. The body can effectively absorb nutrients from meals as the digestive system recovers. Foods to Avoid: Wheat, rye, and barley all naturally contain the protein gluten. Most grains, pasta, cereals, and processed meals all contain gluten. Gluten may also be present in alcoholic beverages manufactured from grains. Foods That Don't Contain Gluten: Meat and seafood Vegetables and fruits Grains such as buckwheat, amaranth, and rice. Pasta and cereals made from rice, corn, millet, sorghum, and Teff. Treatment of Celiac Disease Patients should avoid any food that has gluten in it, including wheat, barley, or rye. Your doctor will recommend you visit a dietician for a formal diet plan. Eliminating gluten from your diet will gradually decrease the inflammation of your gut, you will experience a change you will feel better and eventually heal. However, the complete healing of villi will take months to years. It often takes too long to heal in adults, like two to three years compared to six months in children. You will need regular follow-up and have to remain on this diet for the rest of your life. Even consuming a little quantity of gluten can have an adverse effect on your intestine and your symptoms will return. Even with celiac disease, you can still eat a healthy well-balanced diet. For example, bread and pasta are available made out of other types of flour (corn, soy, and rice). Gluten-free fresh fruits, vegetables, fish, and meats are also available in the market, you can consume them since it’s not been artificially processed. Medication like diamino diphenyl sulfone (Dapsone) helps relieve the symptoms of Dermatitis herpetiformis. Vitamin and mineral supplements can help people with celiac disease prevent or address deficits. Treatments that might lessen the pain of those with celiac disease and improve long-term recovery chances are still being investigated by researchers. The Celiac Disease Foundation provides further information on potential future therapies. How can I prevent Celiac Disease? Celiac disease cannot be cured. However, early detection and management of celiac disease like following a gluten-free diet may prevent the severity of the disease. Therefore, it is very crucial to get yourself checked if you are experiencing any symptoms of celiac disease. Especially if you have a high risk of having the condition. Conclusion Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that can cause numerous symptoms including, digestive difficulties, nervous system problems, weight loss, nutritional deficiencies, and fatigue. However, symptoms of celiac disease vary from person to person . If you have celiac disease, a gluten-free diet is vital for your health. A gluten-free diet will be a big change and challenge in your life. You have to follow gluten-free eating habits strictly that will help you to manage your condition, and eventually, it will reduce your symptoms. Speak to your doctor, if you are doubtful about having celiac disease and get yourself tested.
All You Need to Know About Myelodysplastic Syndrome
What is Myelodysplastic Syndrome? Myelodysplastic Syndrome, or MDS, is a serious and rare blood disorder. It is a type of cancer that affects the bone marrow and can cause a decrease or loss in the number of white blood cells. MDS is most often diagnosed in adults aged 25 to 50 but can also occur in younger adults and children. Some common treatments for MDS are chemotherapy and stem cell transplants. Alternative treatments for MDS are immunotherapy and bone marrow transplantation. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) Panel by FISH Test This FISH panel is made to identify the most prevalent and prognostically-important abnormalities in MDS. FISH studies are helpful supplements to complete chromosome studies, especially when monitoring an abnormal clone, determining relapse and progression, or when there is insufficient material for chromosomal analysis. Get your FISH test Done if you Experience Any Symptoms Like Fatigue Shortness of breath Easy bruising Frequent infections Thrombocytopenia Unusual paleness Anaemia Easy bleeding Pinpoint-sized red spots just beneath the skin Treatments for MDS The main goals of myelodysplastic syndrome treatment are to decrease the condition's progression, relieve symptoms, and avoid consequences. Myelodysplastic syndrome has no known cure, but some drugs may reduce the disease's progression. You might not need therapy right away if you are symptom-free. Instead, your doctor may advise routine checkups and lab testing to monitor your health and determine whether the disease is advancing. Here are Some Common Treatments for MDS: 1. Blood Transfusion Red blood cells and platelets in MDS patients can be replaced with healthy blood cells by blood transfusion. It can help manage symptoms. 2. Stem Cell Transplantation Depending on the source of the replacement blood stem cells, there are two forms of stem cell transplantation: allogeneic (ALLO) and autologous (AUTO). While AUTO uses the patient's stem cells, ALLO uses donated stem cells. In all cases, the objective is to use substantial doses of chemotherapy and radiation therapy to eradicate all unhealthy cells from the bone marrow, blood, and other regions of the body before allowing new blood stem cells to regenerate healthy bone marrow. For MDS patients, an ALLO transplant is advised frequently. 3. Medications Below are some types of drugs that can be used for the treatment of MDS: Drug with growth factors- These drugs are synthetic versions of elements that occur naturally in your bone marrow. Growth agents encouraging the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells may decrease your requirement for regular blood transfusions. Your risk of infection may be reduced by growth agents that encourage the formation of white blood cells. Medications to activate blood cell maturation- People not aided by drugs with growth factors and drugs encouraging blood cells to mature can lessen the need for frequent blood transfusions. Some of these medications may help alleviate the possibility of the illness developing into leukaemia. Drugs that resist the immunological system- Medications that suppress or regulate the immune system are used to lessen the need for red blood cell transfusions in some MDS patients. Medication for genetic anomaly- Your doctor may advise lenalidomide if the gene mutation isolated del(5q) is linked to your myelodysplastic syndrome (Revlimid). Drugs that eliminate infections- You will receive medications to manage infections if your condition worsens. Common drugs for the treatment of MDS: Hypomethylating drugs [Azacitidine (Vidaza), Decitabine (Dacogen)], Conventional drugs [Cytarabine (Cytosar-U), Daunorubicin (Cerubidine), Idarubicin (Idamycin)], Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiD) [Lenalidomide (Revlimid)]. Alternative Treatments for MDS 1. Immunotherapy Biologic therapy, also known as immunotherapy, is intended to strengthen the body's inherent defences against MDS. It uses substances that can be produced by the body or in a lab to enhance, target, or restore immune system function. Although therapy is rarely used for MDS, some individuals may benefit from it. Antithymocyte globulin (ATGAM, Thymoglobulin), a kind of immunotherapy for MDS, is administered following chemotherapy. However, immunotherapy can cause complications in some cases. 2. Bone Marrow Transplantation The only treatment available today that can induce long-lasting remission is high-dose chemotherapy combined with a bone marrow/stem cell transplant. However, because transplantation carries a higher risk of side effects, it may not be suggested for older people or people with existing health issues. A transplant, however, might be an option for people between 50 and 75 after less intense therapy. Your doctor will discuss the risks of transplantation with you before recommending it. They will also consider your age and general health, the subtype of MDS, the outcomes of any prior treatments, and many other things. In a bone marrow transplant, unhealthy cell-containing bone marrow is replaced with highly specialised cells, known as hematopoietic stem cells, which lead to the development of healthy bone marrow. Blood-forming cells called hematopoietic stem cells can be present in the bone marrow and circulation. Since blood stem cells are often transplanted instead of actual bone marrow tissue, the technique is now more frequently referred to as a stem cell transplant than a bone marrow transplant. Conclusion Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a rare condition that leads to mild to moderate illness, often resulting in long-term health problems. It is a condition that results when the mycelium cells of the spinal cord and brain are destroyed. It can result from ischemic or chronic damage to the body, such as a stroke, tumour, or a combination of both.
Iron Deficiency Anemia: Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis
Iron is an essential nutrient for the body's general growth and development. In addition, it serves vital activities like oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and muscle metabolism. Iron is essential when your body is growing, transforming, or changing. Lack of iron in the diet and increased demand in the body are common causes of iron deficiency in pregnancy and pediatrics. Iron deficiency can result in anemia, which lowers your hemoglobin levels. According to WHO figures, anemia affects 33% of non-pregnant women, 40% of pregnant women, and 42% of children globally. A lack of iron does not pose a threat to life. However, it might cause serious health issues. For instance, it results in dyspnea and exhaustion. The good news is that an iron-rich diet and supplementation can effectively prevent an iron deficiency. Causes of Iron Deficiency Anemia As its name suggests, iron deficiency anemia is caused by a lack of iron, blood flow, and a lack of iron-rich foods in the diet. Below are common causes of iron deficiency anemia. Increased Iron Demand The body's need for iron changes during the different phases of a person's life. For example, the years between childhood and adolescence are vital for growth. As a result, you must ensure you're getting enough iron-rich meals. Additionally, the need for iron rises during pregnancy; this is the prime cause of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy. Low Absorption Of Iron Several conditions and surgical procedures may hinder iron absorption. For example, Crohn's disease and celiac disease are common causes of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, gastric bypass patients may not be able to absorb iron. These issues might prevent the gut from absorbing iron. Blood Loss Blood loss is among the common causes of iron deficiency anemia in adults. For instance, it could be brought on by blood loss from an injury, menstruation, etc. According to studies, conditions including gastric ulcer, hernia, and colorectal cancer can cause internal bleeding. In addition, heavy periods of women may be more likely to develop anemia. Diet The most common cause of iron deficiency anemia in children and adults is diet. A variety of nutritional factors affect how well iron is absorbed. Non-heme iron, which is of low quality, is present in vegetarian and vegan meals. Heme iron is present in non-vegetarian sources, in contrast. The rate of absorption is higher for heme iron. Vitamin C It is a necessary nutrient for the absorption of iron. Therefore, foods high in vitamin C may transform iron into a readily absorbable form. As a result, a deficiency in foods high in vitamin C is a common cause of iron deficiency anemia in adults. Phytates Some antinutrients interfere with non-heme iron absorption. For example, soybeans, black beans, lentils, split beans, mung beans, unrefined rice, cereals, and mung beans all contain phytates, which are antinutrients. When combined with iron-rich foods, they reduce your iron absorption. Calcium Although the exact mechanism is still unclear, experts think calcium prevents both heme and non-heme iron from being absorbed. Excess calcium causes iron deficiency anemia in pediatrics. Children who consume an excess of cow milk lack iron and have excess calcium, contributing to iron deficiency anemia. Symptoms of Iron Deficiency Anemia Depending on the severity, iron deficiency symptoms can vary. The list of iron deficiency symptoms is provided below. Fatigue Shortness of Breath Irregular Heartbeat/Palpitations Compromised Immune Health Pale Skin Hairfall Sore Mouth Headaches Spoon-Shaped Nails Diagnosis of Iron Deficiency Anemia Anemia can be easily detected through a complete blood count (CBC) with peripheral smear. Through this test it is possible to identify type of anemia and it may further give a clue to do further supplemental tests like i.e., serum iron studies, vitamin levels and identification of abnormal hemoglobinopathy for arriving at the correct diagnosis for the patient. Prevention of Iron Deficiency Anemia Good eating habits can help you avoid iron deficiency. Iron levels in the body may rise with the consumption of iron-rich meals. Here’s some simple dietary advice that can enable you to prevent iron deficiency anemia. Meat Iron content is exceptionally high in poultry and fish. Salmon and tuna are two more types of meat that are high in iron. To combat an iron shortage, incorporate one of these into your diet two or three times per week. Meat sources have a higher absorption rate of iron than plant sources. Eggs Iron, protein, and vitamins are all found in abundance in eggs. For example, about 9.7% of iron is present in every 100 grams of egg. Legumes Lentils are an excellent source of iron for vegetarians. Lentils provide abundant iron; eat it in salad or dal. Fruits and nuts Dry fruits like apricots are a rich source of iron. Iron can also be found in nuts, seeds, beans, tofu, and iron-fortified cereals. Vitamin C Iron absorption requires vitamin C. Vegetarian sources are rich in non-heme iron. They can eat it. Citrus fruits, bell peppers, and broccoli are food sources of vitamin C. Hydration Did you know drinking water is a reliable method of preventing human iron deficiency anemia? Researchers say drinking water locally enriched with iron compounds should be considered and used as a globally accessible means of controlling iron-deficiency anemia. Leafy Greens Leafy greens, such as spinach and kale, are a rich source of folate, which is necessary to avoid anemia. Additionally, leafy vegetables may further improve general wellness. Avoid Antinutrients Antinutrients can impede the absorption of iron. As a result, you should refrain from pairing meals high in iron with antinutrients like tea, coffee, and dairy products. These foods have antinutrients such as tannins, oxalic acids, and phytic acids that bind to iron and stop it from being absorbed. Don't combine calcium and iron-rich foods It is well known that calcium and iron vie for the same receptors. Therefore, according to experts, calcium and iron-rich diets prevent the body from absorbing iron. Conclusion Although iron deficiency is common among people due to poor eating habits, it can also be brought on by non-dietary practices. Iron deficiency is the main contributor to anemia. Healthy eating practices are crucial as a result. Follow the simple food recommendations detailed in the article to prevent iron deficiency and have an overall healthy life. But always remember to get advice from a professional before adding iron supplements. If you experience any symptoms, get the Anemia Profile-Maxi Test for accurate diagnosis.
Myositis Symptoms and Possible Treatment
The meaning of myositis is very simple. It is a group of conditions causing muscle weakness, pain and inflammation resulting in complete damage. The problem starts gradually but can take varied forms. An unusual rash is sometimes the first sign of this condition. Sometimes the patients might start falling or tripping more frequently. Most often, patients misunderstand myositis symptoms as signs of old age. But the condition is real and can even become serious if not taken care of. Significant causes of myositis include injury, infection, drug side effects and autoimmune conditions. The treatment for this problem can differ as per the cause. Myositis Types and Symptoms The different types of myositis include: Dermatomyositis - affects women and children. Is associated with rash. Polymyositis - affects women between 30-60 years most often Necrotizing Myopathy Juvenile Myositis Sporadic Inclusion Body Myositis (IBM) You need to know more about Sporadic inclusion body myositis symptoms as it is the most common form of myositis found in people above 50 years of age. Major symptoms of this myositis type include difficulty climbing stairs or walking. Muscle weakness and inflammation are the main symptoms of myositis. This weakness might be noticeable, or you can find it only through testing. Myalgias or muscle pain may or may not be present. Polymyositis, Dermatomyositis and other inflammatory myositis cases cause muscle weakness that worsens over time. Muscle weakness generally affects large muscle groups, such as the shoulders, neck, back and hips, and muscles on both sides are usually affected. Muscle weakness from the condition can result in falls and also make it difficult for patients to get up after a fall or from a chair. Other common signs of this inflammatory condition are: Fatigue Rash- In dermatomyositis Difficulty swallowing - In IBM Thickening of the skin on the hands Pain in the muscles People with myositis caused due to a virus can have the signs of viral infection, like fever, runny nose, sore throat, diarrhoea, nausea and cough. However, the signs of viral infection usually go away days or even weeks before the signs of myositis begin. Myositis Diagnosis Metropolis Healthcare Ltd. offers an immunoblot test to diagnose the disease. Test can detect up to sixteen different types of auto-antibodies which are responsible for the condition. Myositis Treatment Myositis treatment can vary as per the cause of the condition. However, basic treatment for the condition includes a blend of exercise and drugs. Medicines are the first choice of treatment for the condition. High doses of steroids are administered in the beginning. These are given as injections or tablets, and they help reduce inflammation and muscle pain along with the feeling of being unwell. Inflammatory conditions that cause myositis are treated with medicines that suppress the immune system. These include: Azathioprine (Imuran) Prednisone Methotrexate There is no specific treatment for myositis caused due to a viral infection. Myositis caused by the drug is treated by stopping the drug. People suffering from myositis due to statin drugs usually experience muscle inflammation that subsides within just a few weeks of stopping the drugs. Most of the time, the medicines mentioned above are unable to treat myositis leading to more severe cases that require the use of treatments like: Immunoglobulins Immunoglobulins are the antibodies collected through blood donations offered by healthy individuals. These can stop the immune system from attacking the tissues in the body. It is offered in a hospital setting and is even repeated if required. It is likely for people to feel a bit unwell during this treatment. Biological therapy Biological therapies treat myositis by blocking targets in the immune system that lead to inflammation. Even the most serious cases of myositis respond to proper treatment, but patients might require life-long medicines to keep the condition in control. Physiotherapy and Exercise Rest is vital in an active myositis condition. And once the problem is better, exercise regularly to improve its symptoms and overall health. Essentially, aerobic exercises that make the heart beat faster and a person breathe more heavily are crucial to improve stamina and regain muscle strength. Do such exercises under a physiotherapist’s supervision who usually offers tailored programs as per the requirement of the patients. Myositis patients should never engage in strenuous exercises. Kids with juvenile Dermatomyositis require more energetic physiotherapy to permanently avoid bending knees and other joints. Myositis patients can recover properly, but not all can recover completely. Even for the ones who make a good recovery, it might take several months to see the improvement. That’s because treatment takes time to help the body repair the damaged muscles, resulting in tiredness among the patients. The key is to continue exercises, which can help with different aspects of myositis. The Bottom Line So, this is all about myositis symptoms and treatment. Myositis can present itself in varied forms affecting the entire body, not just the muscles. Therefore, proper diagnosis of the condition is not always possible. However, an all-inclusive assessment can make it easier to treat myositis patients. Besides that, you can opt for Myositis Profile-IgG Test to detect the particular autoantibodies for identifying myositis.