Allergens to Watch Out for This Winter: Metropolis Study

“Allergy” indicates an abnormally hypersensitive immune reaction to naturally occurring substances called antigens.This immune overreaction can results in respiratory symptoms like breathlessness, coughing, sneezing, runny nose and scratchy throat, skin related symptoms like itching, hives and rashes. In severe cases it can also result in lower blood pressure, asthma attacks, and in a rare event, even death.

Allergy testing is critical to make proper avoidance recommendations, to prevent further harm and provide the required guidance in proper selection and timing of medications. An allergy test comprises of a screening test wherein it is determined whether a person is atopic or not. If the test result is positive, then based on symptoms, age, environment, geographical location, medical history, the patient undergoes a panel test which determines the exact allergen causing problem. There are several panels ranging from inhalant, food, environment, territory specific, indoor etc and over 700 different allergens can be tested for. This method is US FDA approved and Anti-histamines do not have any effect on the test results.

In order to understand the intensity of the allergy pattern in the country, Metropolis Healthcare Ltd, the Pathology Specialist, conducted a comprehensive study on 20,293 tests processed in 2014. Out of 20,293 samples 15.79% showed the positive allergen results in their blood samples.

TypePositiveNegativeGrand Total
Fungus (Mold)37131613532
Dust (Dust mites, House dust, Cockroach dust)131016722982
Animal dander18115741755
Pollen (Trees, grasses)2298811110
Grand Total32041708920293

The study reveals the worrying trend in various types of allergens, 43.93% patients were positive for dusts, followed by Pollens, Fungus and Animal dander denotes around 20.63%, 10.50%, 10.31%, respectively.

An analysis of all positive samples reveals the following analysis.

The most common food allergy signs and symptoms include:

  • Hives, itching or eczema
  • Swelling of the lips, face, tongue and throat or other parts of the body
  • Wheezing, nasal congestion or trouble breathing
  • Abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea or vomiting
  • Dizziness, lightheadedness or fainting

Adding on the study Dr. Deepak Sanghavi, Deputy Chief of Lab Services, Metropolis Healthcare Ltd Mumbai said “It’s easy to confuse a food allergy with a much more common reaction known as food intolerance. Today allergy blood tests are more convenient and accurate than ever before. When combined with a detailed medical history, allergy testing can identify the specific things that trigger your allergic reactions”

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Water borne diseases and diagnosis

Water-borne diseases are diseases caused due to consumption of contaminated water. Waterborne diseases are very common but often unrecognized. Occurrence is worldwide and the incidence varies from country to country.

Facts and figures on water quality and health (WHO)

  • No safe drinking-water: almost 1 billion people lack access to an improved supply
  • Diarrhoeal disease: 2 million annual deaths attributable to unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene
  • Cholera: more than 50 countries still report cholera to WHO
  • Cancer and tooth/skeletal damage: millions exposed to unsafe levels of naturally-occurring arsenic and fluoride
  • Schistosomiasis: an estimated 260 million infected
  • Emerging challenges: increasing use of wastewater in agriculture is important for livelihood opportunities, but also associated with serious public health risks

Infectious & other causative agents

The most frequent causes of water-borne illnesses are various bacteria, viruses and parasites.

Non-infective agents:

  • heavy metal poisoning, including, cadmium, copper, lead, tin and zinc
  • toxic cyanobacteria (blue green algae) overgrowth in water.

Infective agents:


damage to gut wall and/or systemic infection:

  • Salmonella spp.
  • Shigella spp.
  • Clostridium perfringens
  • Campylobacter spp.
  • E.coli.
  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Vibrio cholera/V. parahaemolyticus
  • Yersinia enterocolitica
  • S.typhi/Paratyphi
  • Brucella spp.
  • Listeria monocytogenes


  • Hepatitis A and E viruses
  • Noroviruses and other small round structured viruses (SRSV)
  • Rotavirus


  • Cryptosporidium spp.
  • Entamoebahistolytica
  • Giardia lamblia

Clinical features

The most prominent symptom is acute diarrhea, with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain but the associated dehydration may lead to electrolyte irregularities, acute renal failure, and encephalopathy. Rarely, waterborne illness may be associated with prolonged or more severe complications, such as anemia, shock, hemolytic–uremic syndrome, spontaneous abortion, seizures, and liver, heart, or lung disease.

Nondiarrhoeal waterborne diseases include listeriosis; hepatitis A etc. Systemic involvement is seen in these diseases.

Mode of transmission

Transmission is predominantly via the faecal-oral route or ingestion of contaminated food and water sources. Transmission via aerosols (produced during profuse vomiting) has been implicated in outbreaks involving viral pathogens.

Foodborne and Waterborne Illness: Diagnosis

Clinical History

  • A detailed history to assess changes in the patient’s bowel pattern.
  • Acute diarrhea diagnosis in the clinical setting is based on an increased frequency and looser consistency of stools.
  • Temporal relationships with exposures to food, antibiotics, sick persons, or travel (including hiking and camping) is important.
  • The history may help determine whether the condition is likely to be self limited or requires treatment.
  •  In addition, the history points toward likely causative organisms that may be candidates for testing.
  • For example, a history of blood or mucus in the diarrhea warrants stool examination.

Laboratory examination

  • Stool culture: Stool culture is a test used for the isolation of diarrhea causing organisms from liquid stools. Special nutritional media are used to ensure growth of bacterial pathogens such as Vibrio cholera, Salmonella spp; Shigellaspp.etc.
  • Mass spectrometry based systems are helpful in rapid identification of bacteria.
  • If antibiotic treatment is needed in severe disease, susceptibility testing can be done using disc diffusion and automated microdilution testing.
  • Leukocyte count : Indicate infectious origin especially bacterial diarrhea
  • Fecal occult blood testing: May indicate dysentery (blood in stools) due to certain bacteria such as Shigellaspp, E.coli 157.
  • Screening for ova and parasites: Saline and iodine mounts are done to detect parasitic infections such as Amoebiasis, Hookworm infections.
  • Comprehensive testing for Stool parasites: Includes special stains such as trichrome stain to diagnose parasitic infections.
  • Special stains for opportunistic pathogens: Stains such as Mod.Kinyoun, Mod.Trichrome are used to detect parasitic infections in immunocompromised patients.
  • Stool antigen tests: Stool antigen tests provide rapid, sensitive and reliable diagnosis of parasites such as Giardia, Cryptosporidium. Also useful in viral disease such as Rotavirus, Norovirus and Adenovirus which are being increasingly recognized as leading causes of diarrhea.
  • Serology testing: Serology testing using paired sera is useful for detection of antibodies to various bacteria, virus and parasitic infections, especially in nondiarrhoeal systemic disease.
  • Toxoplasma antibodies, Hepatitis A antibodies, Brucella antibodies can be detected by this test.
  • Blood culture and other sterile site sample cultures: Used to diagnose infections such as Listeriosis, Brucella spp.

Preventive measures

Prevention of the contamination of potable water is very important. Contaminated water should be treated by adequate filtration and disinfection or by boiling.

Vaccines are currently available for cholera and hepatitis A

Outbreak measures

Food and water-borne outbreaks are usually detected following the onset of illness in a group of people who have shared a common meal. The primary objectives of outbreak control are the rapid identification of the causative agent through epidemiological, environmental and laboratory investigations and prevention of further disease by destruction or denaturation of the source.

International measures

International outbreaks are increasingly being recognised, primarily due to the increased trade in food and agricultural products worldwide. Food and water-borne pathogens and contaminants have been identified as potential biological terrorism agents. Cases of rare diseases like botulism should be investigated immediately. Some diseases require notification to the World Health Organization, like cholera.

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heart healthy

Mumbai December 2015:Metropolis Healthcare Ltd, The Pathology Specialist haslaunched ‘The Metropolis Marathon Package’ a comprehensive diagnostic package comprising 20 distinct tests to screen the complete health of a marathoner. The first of its kind diagnostic initiative will be available across Metropolis centers in Mumbai.

The sheer number of Indian runners participating in marathons continues to grow and new half marathons and full marathons are being added every year. Marathon is considered as the ultimate running challenge and marathon enthusiasts train for over a year before the grand finale. Training for a marathon can be just as strenuous as running a marathon. It is important to understand that running for 42kms (full marathon) or 21kms (half-marathon) needs a different conditioning for the body and muscles.

‘The Metropolis Marathon Package’ is a comprehensive health package comprising a group of tests to screen the complete health of individuals taking part in the marathon which includes an in-depth cardiac risk analysis and an overall assessment of kidney and liver function. Whether you are a novice or a seasoned marathon runner, it is important to know your physical limits and capabilities. Prolong running may cause difficulties to heart in refilling chambers and abnormalities in pumping blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.

Health checks every runner must undergo

  • Are you fit enough to run a Marathon?
  • Do you have a family history of Diabetes/Blood pressure/Heart Attack?
  • Need for medical clearance before a marathon?
  • What are the risks associated with a Marathon?
  • General Body Check
    Test Name: CBC- To check anaemia, infection and measure cell count of various blood components.
    Result: Good haemoglobin levels are very important for marathon runners.
  • Diabetes Check 
    Test Name: HBA1c, Glucose Fasting, D3 HydroxyButarate.
    Result: Endurance training lowers blood sugar. May lead to diabetic ketoacidosis which is life-threatening. The above tests will help diabetics plan their insulin doses and also screen general mass of diabetes.
  • Cardiac Check 
    • Test Name: Lipid Profile Mini, CPK-Total, Stress test, ECG, Blood Pressure.
      Result: High levels of HDL cholesterol are generally observed in endurance / marathon trainers. HDL facilitates fibrinolysis and prevents the occurrence of coronary heart disease. Abnormally high levels of LDL may require further testing before the run.
    • Test Name: CPK
      Result:High CPK suggests muscle / heart / brain injury which may be aggravated because of endurance training. Hence it becomes important to monitor CPK.
    • Test Name:ECG/Stress Test
      Result: Important test to monitor the functioning of heart in order to prevent sudden heart failure post marathon.
  • Bone Health Check 
    Test Name: Calcium / Vit D
    Result: People with low calcium and Vit D are more prone to ligament / muscular/ bone injuries. Such deficiencies prolong the process of healing of injuries.
  • Kidney Health Check 
    Test Name: Kidney Function Test
    Result: Kidneys help regulate blood pressure and plays a vital role in the production of RBCs. Normal kidneys is required for high level endurance training.
  • Liver Health Check 
    Test Name: Liver function Test
    Result: Liver plays a vital role in digestion, metabolism and detoxification. Hence it is important to monitor this organ before a marathon as during the run large toxins are produced in the body.

Speaking on the launch, Dr Nilesh Shah, Group President & SBU Head, West India, Metropolis Healthcare said, “We have seen and heard of instances where athletes collapse during marathon due to sudden cardiac arrest or shooting up of blood pressure etc. The body undergoes various changes with the age and one must not take it for granted; a thorough check-up should be carried out before undertaking any such activity under the supervision of a qualified physician and one should also understand one’s physical limitation. Nothing is more precious than life. Also patients suffering from asthma, lung or kidney issues, diabetes should be extremely cautious before undertaking the marathon.”

With the huge growing popularity of marathon running, it’s important to make sure that the body is up for the challenge.Getting acquainted of personal health records, heart rate and blood sugar level, is the best way to safeguard long-term health issues by classifying troublesome concerns at the earliest.

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1 in 5 women affected by PCOS: Metropolis Study
  • Women between the age group of 15 and 30 are at high risk of PCOS
  • East India leads the chart with 1 in 4 women suffering from PCOS

Metropolis Healthcare Ltd, a multinational chain of pathology laboratories; conducted an inclusive study on Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) to observe the trends in PCOS cases in young women in India. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome commonly known as PCOS, is a very prevalent reproductive disorder in women and the leading cause of fertility among women today.

Metropolis conducted a comprehensive pan India study on 27411 samples of testosterone over a period of 18 months. Out of 27411 samples, around 4824, (17.60%) of the females face hormonal associated risk with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

The increasing trend of PCOS is predominantly seen in the age group 15 to 30 years. Among the samples tested East India shows alarming levels of 25.88% women affected by PCOS, followed by 18.62% in North India, which can be largely attributed to lack of awareness among young women and ignorance.

Commenting on the study Dr.SonaliKolte, General Manager – Medico Marketing, Metropolis Healthcare Ltd said, “Undiagnosed PCOS can lead to infertility and in long term can cause several health complications; which can be attributed to other factors as well. Early diagnosis and treatment can help control the symptoms and prevent health related problems. Today a lot of young women are aware of the condition and seek medical help”

What is PCOS? It is a common misconception that PCOS is all about cysts but it is in fact a characteristic amalgamation of cosmetic, gynecological and metabolic symptoms. Cosmetic symptoms include facial hair, thinning of the scalp and acne. Gynecological symptoms include irregular or scanty periods which are usually the first red flag in adolescents. Infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss affects the women in the reproductive age. PCOS in older women could even lead to cancer of the uterus, cardiac disease and type 2 diabetes. Hence it is important to manage the symptom along with proper diet and exercise. Awareness and accurate diagnosis is the first step in managing PCOS in a way that it improves quality of life of the patient. Women with PCOS may have enlarged ovaries that contain small collection of fluids called cyst. The cysts are not harmful, but can lead to hormonal imbalances.

Diagnosis: Testosterone test along with a host of other tests (blood sugar, insulin, FSH, LH, 17OHP, DHEAS) are carried out to ascertain PCOS in women. Testosterone plays an important role in both men and women, as it affects the brain, bone, muscle, fat distribution, sexual functions etc. Women have much lower amount of testosterone in the body compared to men.

The below tables has been segregated zone wise to give an overall picture of PCOS in India

ZoneAbnormal Profiles (in %)
North India18.62
East India25.88
West India19.88
South India18

(Reference range: Testosterone Total: 15 – 70 ng/dl, Testosterone Free: 0.29 – 3.18 pg/ml, DHEAS: 45 – 270 ug/dl)

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Top Heart Healthy Foods for you
Heart Healthy FoodsNutritional Value
Ground FlaxseedOmega 3 Fatty Acids, Fibre, phytoestrogens
Almonds & WalnutsOmega 3 Fatty Acids, Vitamin E, Magnesium, Mono and Polyunsaturated fats, phytosterols
Black or Kidney BeansB Complex Vitamins, Niacin, Folate, Magnesium, Omega 3 Fatty Acids, Calcium, Soluble Fibre
OatmealOmega 3 Fatty Acids, Magnesium, Pottasium, Folate, Niacin, Calcium, Soluble Fibre
Brown RiceB Complex Vitamins, Fiber, Niacin, Magnesium
BroccoliBeta Carotene, Vitamin C & E, Pottasium, Folate, Calcium, Fibre
Sweet PotatoBeta Carotene, Vitamin A, C & E, Fibre
OrangesBeta Cryptoxanthin, Beta and Alpha Carotene, Lutein and Flavones, Vitamin C, Pottasium, Folate, Fibre
SpinachLutein, B Complex Vitamins, Magnesium, Potassium, Calcium, Fibre
TomatoesBeta and Alpha Carotene, Lycopene, Lutein, Vitamin C, Pottasium, Folate, Fibre
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Different types of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis and Diagnosis

Awareness is the first step towards good health. In infections such as Tuberculosis, it is important that patients are fully aware of the burden of the disease, the types of tests needed, the drugs used for treatment, duration of treatment, disease monitoring and treatment progression. Health awareness on a large scale is required to tackle a burden like Tuberculosis. We have seen India take strides in tackling Polio and Leprosy; the nation now needs to take up TB control on priority.

India has approximately two to three million people infected Tuberculosis, the largest in the World.

A person with active TB disease has drug resistant TB if the TB bacteria that the person is infected with, will not respond to, and are resistant to, at least one of the main TB drugs.

  • Mono Resistant Tuberculosis is resistant to one of the first line drugs
  • Poly resistant Tuberculosis is resistant to more than 1 drug but not to the combination of Rifampicin & Isoniazid
  • Multi Drug Resistant Tuberculosis is resistance to of Rifampicin & Isoniazid
  • Extensively Drug Resistant Tuberculosis is MDR + resistance to fluroquinolones and at least 1 of 3 injectable drugs
  • TDR or Total Drug Resistant tuberculosis is resistant to all first and second line TB drugs

The WHO has set protocols for TB diagnosis and four tests have been approved: two molecular tests viz. Gene Xpert and Line Probe Assay, LED microscope and liquid culture.

GenExpert Test

The biggest advantage of GenExpert test is the speed at which the test result is obtained. Results can be reported in 2 hours; presence of tuberculosis accurately determined and moreover detects resistance to Rifampicin. It is strongly recommended to be used as the initial diagnostic test in individuals suspected of having MDR-TB or HIV associated TB.

AFB (Acid Fast Bacilli) – Rapid Liquid Culture

Liquid Culture continues to the Gold standard for rapid diagnosis of active tuberculosis and for correct diagnosis and management of mono, poly, multi, extremely and total drug resistant tuberculosis. The test helps in identification and differentiation of M. Tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM). The test is extremely important in case of smear negative samples and extra pulmonary tuberculosis.

Despite all the advantages, the turnaround of the time could vary from 10 days to even up to 6 weeks. The TAT is dependent on the culture growth. Drug resistance testing in tuberculosis is of two types: Phenotype and Genotype. Phenotypic meaning the observable characteristic of an organism, whereas genotypic is the genetic characteristics of the organism. Liquid culture is used for phenotypic susceptibility testing for first and second line drugs.

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Different types of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis and Diagnosis

In close to 130 years since Koch’s discovery of tubercle bacilli, the search for effective diagnostic tools has moved through a succession of varied and ultimately more effective methods. In the majority of the world smear microscopy, a technique developed over 100 years ago, is still the mainstay of tuberculosis diagnosis. Globally, Liquid culture is still the gold standard for tuberculosis diagnosis, which has seen advancements by the use of automated liquid culture technology.

The WHO has set protocols for TB diagnosis and four tests have been approved: two molecular tests viz. Gene Xpert and Line Probe Assay, LED microscope and liquid culture.

GenExpert Test

The biggest advantage of GenExpert test is the speed at which the test result is obtained. Results can be reported in 2 hours; presence of tuberculosis accurately determined and moreover detects resistance to Rifampicin. It is strongly recommended to be used as the initial diagnostic test in individuals suspected of having MDR-TB or HIV associated TB.

Additionally, it May also be used as a follow-on test to microscopy esp. smear negatives.

Yet another bigger advantage of the GenExpert test is in accurately determining active tuberculosis as compared to latent tuberculosis.

In GenExpert the limit of detection is as few as 131 colony forming units/ml of MTB compared with approximately 10,000 colony forming units/ml with conventional smear microscopy. In addition, Genexpert is validated and WHO recommended for extrapulmonary samples such as lymph node aspirates, lymphnode tissues, & body fluids for diagnosis of active tuberculosis. For CSF, this is THE test of choice.

Line Probe Assay

The Line Probe Assay (1st line drugs) is a DNA strip test that allows simultaneous molecular identification of tuberculosis and the most common genetic mutations causing resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid. This technology can diagnose MDR-TB directly from smear-positive sputum samples, providing results in just five hours.

The test was endorsed by WHO in 2008 and the accuracy of detecting MDR TB is over 99%.

LPA can additionally also test for resistance to second line drugs (Fluroquinolones, ethambutol, aminoglycosides and cyclic peptides)

AFB (Acid Fast Bacilli) – Rapid Liquid Culture

Liquid Culture continues to the Gold standard for rapid diagnosis of active tuberculosis and for correct diagnosis and management of mono, poly, multi, extremely and total drug resistant tuberculosis.

The test helps in identification and differentiation of M. Tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM). The test is extremely important in case of smear negative samples and extra pulmonary tuberculosis.

Despite all the advantages, the turnaround of the time could vary from 10 days to even up to 6 weeks. The TAT is dependent on the culture growth.

Drug resistance testing in tuberculosis is of two types: Phenotype and Genotype. Phenotypic meaning the observable characteristic of an organism, whereas genotypic is the genetic characteristics of the organism. Liquid culture is used for phenotypic susceptibility testing for first and second line drugs.

Fluorescent Microscopy

The most important tool in the diagnosis of tuberculosis is direct microscopic examination of appropriately stained sputum specimens for acid-fast bacilli. The technique is simple and inexpensive, and detects those cases of tuberculosis, which are infectious. Sputum microscopy is also useful to assess the response to treatment, and to establish cure or failure at the end of treatment. A major shortcoming of conventional microscopy is its relatively low sensitivity compared with culture, especially in patients co-infected with HIV. Fluorescence microscopy and LED microscopy rather than conventional microscopy is fast becoming the standard diagnostic method.


Lack of diagnostic capacity has been a crucial barrier preventing an effective response to the challenges of MDR-TB (Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis) and XDR – TB . Also the critical gaps in laboratory capacity for culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) have been a big challenge.

Traditionally sputum microscopy followed by culture sensitivity has been the line of diagnosis which takes a couple of days before the diagnosis is made. Metropolis Healthcare Limited has introduced Genexpert in early 2013 which ensures quick and accurate testing of MDR TB. It is a confirmatory test for tuberculosis which unlike the conventional method releases the result in two hours. Approved by WHO, Genexpert is highly reliable for detection of multidrug resistance tuberculosis for rifampicin.

Apart from Genexpert, other test offered by metropolis for further diagnose MDR are Line probe assay which helps diagnose resistance against two most commonly used drug to cure tuberculosis(rifampicin and isoniazid) and AFB- Rapid liquid culture for diagnosis of XDR and XXDR TB. Both these line of tests are highly recommended by WHO.

Quality, proficiency testing and accreditation are of utmost importance for Laboratory testing of tuberculosis. Mycobacteriology Laboratory at Metropolis is CAP, NABL certified and also Certified By Central Tuberculosis Division (RNTCP), GOI for Liquid culture, 1st line Drug Susceptibility Testing and Line Probe Assay.

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Role of Sodium in the Human Body

Sodium is often looked at as the main culprit that causes high blood pressure. But did you know that the body needs sodium in small amounts to play important roles in the body.

  • Sodium along with potassium helps in maintaining the right balance of fluids in the body. It removes excess fluid and retains the required amounts
  • Helps transmit never impulses
  • Regulates the contraction and relaxation of muscles
  • As vague as it may sound, sodium helps in controlling the blood pressure. However consuming excess of sodium can raise blood pressure.
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Why is MAIDA / white flour bad for health?

White Flour or popularly known as MAIDA in India is basically wheat flour that is refined and chemically bleached. During the refining processes, the wheat flour is stripped of precious fibre, B Vitamins and Iron.

People regularly consuming MAIDA or White Flour increase their risk for weight gain, obesity, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and elevated cholesterol.

You could be consuming white flour without actually knowing that these processed foods are made out of Maida. Did you know that the following foods contain white flour?

  • Pizza & Pasta
  • Nans & Rotis
  • Cakes & Cookies
  • Bread
  • Burger Buns
  • Samosa
  • Noodles
  • Doughnuts

Choose a healthy & nutritious diet and undergo regular blood parameter investigations to take complete control of your health.

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Symptoms of LEAD poisoning

According to a WHO study, lead exposure is estimated to account for 1,43,000 deaths per year with the highest burden in developing regions. Young children are particularly vulnerable to the toxic effects of lead and can suffer profound and permanent adverse health effects, particularly affecting the development of the brain and nervous system. Lead exposure is estimated to contribute to 6,00,000 new cases of children with intellectual disabilities every year. In growing children, lead poisoning causes low IQ, hyperactivity, attention deficit, learning disabilities and anemia.

Lead poisoning can be hard to detect even people who seem healthy can have high blood levels of lead. At high levels of exposure, lead damages the brain and central nervous system and can lead to coma, convulsions and even death, signs and symptoms of lead poisoning usually don’t appear until dangerous amounts have accumulated. Lead poisoning can be treated if detected at an early stage; taking some simple precautions can help protect yourself and your family.

Major sources of blood lead include leaded contaminated soil, drinking water, petrol emissions, household dust, battery recycling, silver refining, paints (especially yellow), pigments, printing presses, ceramic pottery glazes, cosmetics, colours (including kumkum, sindoor, spices and Holi colours), children’s toys (crayons and painted pencils), plant foods and traditional medicines.

Lead poisoning cases in young children are high because of licking or eating lead-containing paint when it is peeling off the walls or toys. Lead from a mother’s blood can pass to the fetus during pregnancy, possibly giving rise to genetic disorders.

Lead causes long-term harm in adults, including increased risk of high blood pressure and kidney damage. Adults who work with batteries, do home renovations or work in auto repair shops also may be exposed to lead. It can induce brain, kidney, stomach, heart, hearing, muscle and fertility damage. Exposure of pregnant women to high levels of lead can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, premature birth and low birth weight, as well as minor malformations. Women with high blood lead levels develop early osteoporosis, lower backache, joint pain and persistent anemia.

Health issues caused due to Lead Poisoning

  • Developmental Delay
  • Decline in Cognition and Memory Loss
  • Learning Difficulties
  • Irritability and Mood Swings
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of Appetite
  • Sluggishness and Fatigue
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Miscarriage & Preterm Birth
  • Vomiting or Constipation
  • Muscle Pain
  • Loss of Fertility
  • Low Sperm Count
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