Anemia Study

Study Highlights:

  1. More than four lakh samples (4,25,444) were tested across India for the level of iron in patient blood samples.
  2. A total of 22.7% of the sample exhibited an iron deficit.
  3. 50% of children aged 0 to 12 have an iron deficiency.
  4. The study’s findings showed that Madhya Pradesh and Puducherry have the greatest percentage of anemic patients, closely followed by Rajasthan.
More than 4,25,444 people were tested across India for the level of iron.
22.7% of the people sample exhibited an iron deficit.
50% of children aged 0 to 12 have an iron deficiency.

Nearly a quarter of the world’s population is now affected by anaemia, making it a major public health concern. The situation is significantly worse in underdeveloped nations where the majority of people still don’t know the fundamentals of anaemia diagnosis, prevention, and therapy. In support of the Government of India’s Anaemia Mukt Bharat (AMB) campaign, Metropolis Healthcare Limited, India’s top diagnostic service provider, released an all-India study on anaemia as the globe observes “Iron Deficiency Day’ on 26th November 2022.

A significant portion of the population in many developing nations suffers from anaemia. The moment has come for the government, medical organisations, and healthcare providers to work together to solve this issue at its source. The diffusion of knowledge in the form of data analytics and sophisticated scientific insights might aid in raising public awareness of widespread health issues like anaemia.

Accurate degree and cause identification is essential, and this process starts with screening tests like the Complete Blood Count (CBC) and a pathologist’s analysis of peripheral blood smears. Specialized testing is then used to dig further into the reason. Despite the fact that nutritional deficiencies and chronic diseases are the main contributors, there are numerous areas in which proactive action can improve our citizens’ general health, wellbeing, and productivity, especially the most vulnerable population.

While some states had highest percentage of Anaemics

The publication of this study is an effort by Metropolis to support the government’s objectives of lowering the prevalence of anaemia throughout the nation. 

Since 1980, Metropolis Healthcare Limited, a pioneer in the diagnostics industry, has shared its knowledge with the country and the world. The firm has a significant presence in 20 states across India and affects millions of people’s lives annually by giving patients and physicians actionable health insights.

Read more about the study here:

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The Norovirus, also known as the stomach flu, is a highly contagious virus that causes vomiting and diarrhoea. The virus can cause dehydration, so it’s important to drink plenty of fluids if you think you may have the Norovirus. The best way to prevent the Norovirus is to practice good hygiene, such as washing your hands often and avoiding contact with people who are sick. If you do get sick, it’s important to stay hydrated and rest until you feel better. We elaborate on the aforementioned facts in this blog.

What is the Norovirus?

Noroviruses are a type of virus that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness. These viruses are highly contagious and can easily spread through food or contact with contaminated surfaces. Noroviruses are the leading cause of outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in India. Each year, noroviruses cause 685 million illnesses, of which 200 million illnesses are found in children.

3 Simple Ways To Stay Safe From Norovirus

It’s that time of year again when the norovirus, also known as the stomach flu, makes its rounds. Here are three simple ways to stay safe from norovirus:

1. Keep your surroundings clean. This means wiping down surfaces that could be contaminated with the virus, such as door handles, countertops, and phones. If someone in your household is sick, be sure to disinfect all common areas regularly.

2. Wash your hands often and thoroughly. This is one of the most effective ways to prevent the spread of any illness, but it’s especially important with norovirus since it’s so easily passed from person to person. Be sure to wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and water after using the bathroom, changing a diaper, or coming into contact with someone who is sick.

3. Practice food safety. When preparing food for yourself or others, be sure to wash your hands thoroughly and cook food properly (to an internal temperature of at least 165 degrees Fahrenheit). Avoid cross-contamination by keeping raw meat away from other food items, and don’t forget to clean utensils and cutting boards after use.

Norovirus Causes

Norovirus is also known as the winter vomiting bug. Some of the most common ways that norovirus is spread include:

-Touching surfaces or objects that are contaminated with the virus, such as doorknobs, door handles, countertops, or utensils.

-Eating food that has been contaminated with the virus, such as shellfish or salads.

-Having direct contact with someone who is infected with norovirus, such as shaking hands or sharing eating utensils.

If you think you may have contracted norovirus, it is important to see a doctor right away as the virus can lead to dehydration and other serious health complications. There is no specific treatment for norovirus, but drinking plenty of fluids and getting rest will help your body recover.

Norovirus Symptoms

Norovirus is a highly contagious virus that causes vomiting and diarrhoea. Symptoms usually begin within 12 to 48 hours after exposure and can last for 1 to 3 days.

Common symptoms include:

• Nausea

• Vomiting

• Diarrhea

• Abdominal pain or cramping

• Fever (in some cases)

• Muscle aches (in some cases)

If you experience any of these symptoms, it’s important to stay hydrated by drinking clear fluids like water, sports drinks, or broth. Avoid dairy products, caffeine, and alcohol as they can make your symptoms worse. You should also avoid greasy food until your symptoms have subsided.

In most cases, norovirus will go away on its own without medical intervention. However, in some cases, people may need hospitalization due to excessive dehydration from vomiting and diarrhoea.

Norovirus Treatment

There is no specific treatment for norovirus, and most people recover on their own within a few days. However, there are some steps you can take to help ease your symptoms and speed up your recovery:

-Drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration.

-Take over-the-counter medications like ibuprofen or acetaminophen to help relieve pain and fever.

-Stay home from work or school until your symptoms have resolved to prevent the spreading of the virus.

When to Seek Medical Attention for the Norovirus

If you have severe vomiting or diarrhoea, or if you are unable to keep down fluids, it is essential to contact your doctor and seek medical attention as soon as possible. If you or someone you know has the following symptoms, it is also important to seek medical attention right away:

• Blood in vomit or stool

• Severe abdominal pain

• Dehydration

• Persistent vomiting

• Fever over 102°F (39°C)

Norovirus Diagnosis Through a Stool Test

Noroviruses are found in the stool of infected people. A stool test is the most common way to diagnose norovirus. The test involves collecting a stool sample from an infected person and testing it for the presence of noroviruses. Stool tests are usually performed by health care providers in order to confirm a diagnosis of norovirus infection. Visiting a dependable diagnostic lab is essential for getting accurate test results. Manipulated or incorrect results can lead to inaccurate diagnosis of the disease, leading to severe health risks.


With the winter season comes an increased risk of contracting the norovirus, but there are steps you can take to protect yourself and your family. First and foremost, practice good hygiene by washing your hands frequently and avoiding close contact with those who are sick. Additionally, be sure to clean surfaces that could be contaminated with the virus, such as door handles and countertops. Finally, stay home if you yourself become ill in order to prevent spreading the virus to others. By following these simple tips, you can help keep yourself and your loved ones safe this winter season.

Early diagnosis is important to deal with norovirus. Come winter, be proactive in dealing with norovirus by getting accurate results at Metropolis Healthcare Labs. Our ultra-modern diagnosis infrastructure enables us to give accurate results within a short time. Stool testing is one of the most-relied ways to diagnose norovirus and you can count on us for accurate diagnosis. Our hundreds of branches spread across India, Middle East, and Africa makes it easy for you to find a lab near you without too much trouble.

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Asthma Symptoms

Bronchial asthma, more commonly known as asthma, is a disease that severely affects your lungs. This condition is chronic and requires continued medication and treatment. Asthma in its most severe form can result in an asthma attack, which, if not treated, can prove to be fatal. An asthma attack can be caused either by bronchospasm—resulting in the constriction of the muscles around the airways; inflammation of the lining of the airways—making it difficult to breathe, or excess mucus production that clogs the airways.

If your asthma isn’t controlled, it might result in a flare-up, or what is medically called an exacerbation. Thankfully, a little awareness and medical attention can be beneficial in controlling asthma symptoms to a large extent.

Types of Asthma

Asthma symptoms in adults and children may vary depending on the type and cause. Asthma is mainly differentiated into two types:

  1. Adult-onset: This type kicks in only after age 18 or in adults.
  2. Pediatric: Also known as childhood asthma, this type usually starts before age 5, even in toddlers and infants.

Based on the causes and the severity of asthma symptoms, it can be further divided into

  • Intermittent Asthma: The asthma flares are intermittent. This means they can come and go while you feel quite normal in between the attacks.
  • Persistent Asthma: As the name suggests, in this type, the individual consistently suffers from asthma symptoms.

There are still other types of asthma, such as,

  • Occupational Asthma: If you work in an environment full of allergens or irritants, you may develop this type of asthma.
  • Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome: ACOS, in short, is actually a combination of asthma and COPD, or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Together, they can make breathing extremely difficult.
  • Exercise-Induced Asthma: Also known as exercise-induced bronchospasm. This is triggered by unregulated or excessive exercise.
  • Aspirin-Induced Asthma: AIA, in short, is usually very severe and triggered by the ingestion of aspirin.
  • Nocturnal Asthma: In this type, asthma symptoms tend to worsen at night.
  • Cough-Variant Asthma: CVA, in short, this type manifests classic asthma symptoms like wheezing and shortness of breath or a persistent dry cough.

Symptoms and Causes of Asthma

The most common asthma symptom is wheezing, or the whistling or squealing sound of your breath when you get an asthma attack. Other asthma symptoms may include

  • Coughing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Tightness in the chest
  • Panic or anxiety
  • Rapid breathing
  • Frequent contraction of infections
  • Fatigue

Severe asthma symptoms that may call for an emergency include

  • Gasping for breath or air
  • Disorientation or confusion
  • Dizziness
  • Pale lips
  • Pale fingernails
  • Difficulty walking
  • Difficulty talking
  • Blue lips

Risk Factors of Asthma

Many factors can cause asthma. But some of them increase the risk of an occurrence. These include

  • Allergies: Allergic asthma symptoms are common in both adults and children.
  • Environment: Exposure to certain environmental substances such as toxins, fumes, smoke, and allergens can also induce asthma.
  • Genetics: If you are from a family with a history of asthma or other allergies, you are at a higher risk of getting asthma.
  • Respiratory Infections: Respiratory infections like RSV, or Respiratory Syncytial Virus, can prevent the full development of the lungs in young children, which can later cause asthma.

Asthma Triggers

Patients suffering from asthma demonstrate some common elements that may trigger asthma attacks. Some common asthma triggers include.

  • Air pollution
  • Dust mites
  • Exercise
  • Mould
  • Pest infestation
  • Dried skin flakes on house pets
  • Tobacco smoke
  • Strong chemicals
  • Certain smells
  • Environmental exposure to allergens

Diagnosis of Asthma

Asthma is typically not diagnosed through a single test. Rather, the doctor uses a set of criteria to determine whether you have asthma or not. These can be

  • Your health history
  • Family health history
  • A physical exam where your breathing is assessed
  • Allergen tests to identify allergic reactions
  • Breathing tests or PFTs (Pulmonary Function Tests) measure the inflow and outflow of air in your lungs

Doctors usually refrain from administering any tests on children since the readings may not be accurate. Instead, they prescribe medication to assess if the symptoms improve. In adults, on the other hand, a bronchodilator or other asthma medication may be prescribed to see if symptoms improve.

Asthma Treatment

Depending on the causes and severity, the treatment for asthma symptoms is determined.

1. Quick-Relief Treatment

This includes medications used to attain quick relief from an asthma attack. These may be

  • Bronchodilators: They work instantly to reduce the muscle tightness around the airways and help normalise breathing. Usually, it is advised to take the specific bronchodilator as specified by the physician. These are usually taken with the help of a nebulizer or inhaler.
  • First aid: This is usually done as a first aid response to a person undergoing an asthma attack. The individual is advised to sit upright and use a generic bronchodilator.

2. Long-Term Medications

Individuals suffering from severe asthma symptoms are generally prescribed long-term medications. While they may not help to prevent immediate symptoms, they do help manage the severity in the long run when consumed as prescribed. These include

  • Anti-Inflammatory Medicines: These are taken with corticosteroids or an inhaler. They help reduce swelling and prevent excess mucus production.
  • Anticholinergics: Usually taken daily along with anti-inflammatories, which help stop the tightening of muscles around the airways.
  • Bronchodilators: These are long-acting dilators that are taken along with anti-inflammatory medications.

3. Biologics

Biologics target specific antibodies in the body, which, in turn, disrupt the pathway leading to asthma-inducing inflammation. This course of treatment is usually prescribed when other medications are unable to control asthma triggers. These medications are either injected or infused under medical supervision.

4. Bronchial Thermoplasty

This special treatment uses an electrode to heat the airways inside the lungs. This reduces the size of the muscles surrounding the area and prevents tightening. This is a minimally invasive procedure that can only be performed by a medical practitioner in a hospital setup.

Asthma is very manageable and, to some extent, curable. You need to be aware of asthma symptoms beforehand to act correctly when and if a trigger occurs, resulting in an asthma attack.

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Most people use PCOS and PCOD interchangeably as these conditions are related to the ovaries, cause hormonal disturbances, and may affect women’s fertility. However, PCOS and PCOD are not the same.

Women have two ovaries that release an egg every alternate month. The ovaries also produce hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle, determine fertility, and affect a woman’s overall health. PCOS and PCOD cause similar symptoms, and it is common for women to get confused between the two.

Here’s what you need to know about PCOS vs. PCOD!

What is PCOS?

PCOS is an endocrine disorder in which the ovaries produce a higher quantity of the male hormone, leading to the formation of over ten follicular cysts in the ovaries every month. Due to the cysts, there is no egg release (ovulation), resulting in anovulation. If not treated in time, PCOS can result in infertility and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

Causes of PCOS

The exact cause of PCOS is unknown, but a few factors that may contribute to the development of the condition are:

  • Insulin resistance
  • Excessive production of male hormones
  • Genetics
  • Low-grade inflammation

Symptoms of PCOS

PCOS symptoms usually start around the time a girl gets her menstrual period. Having two or more of the following symptoms can help confirm a PCOS diagnosis:

  • Irregular menstrual cycles and heavy bleeding during the cycle
  • Excessive weight gain
  • Abnormal hair loss and hair thinning
  • Severe and frequent acne
  • Skin darkens on parts like the neck, underarms, intimate areas, inner thighs, etc.
  • Skin tags
  • Infertility
  • Fatigue
  • Abnormal abdominal pain

What is PCOD?

Polycystic Ovarian Disorder (PCOD) is a medical condition in which the ovaries produce immature eggs, which results in swollen ovaries, hormonal disturbances, and other similar symptoms. The immature or partially-mature eggs that the ovaries produce can result in the formation of cysts.

PCOD usually runs in families, and having a first-degree relative with this condition increases a woman’s risk of developing it.

Causes of PCOD

A few common risk factors that may cause PCOD are:

  • Unhealthy lifestyle
  • Hormone-altering medication
  • Some supplements and medications

Symptoms of PCOD

Though similar to PCOS, commonly occurring symptoms of PCOD are:

  • Excessive hair growth on the body
  • Irregular periods with heavy bleeding
  • Obesity
  • Disturbed sleep cycle
  • Mood swings

PCOS Vs. PCOD: Major Points of Difference

If you are still unsure how to differentiate PCOS vs. PCOD, here are some significant points to differentiate them.


One of the differentiating factors between PCOS and PCOD is fertility. Women with PCOD can conceive with little medical help and lifestyle changes. On the other hand, women with PCOS usually struggle with infertility issues and are at a higher risk of miscarriages.

Serious complications

Women with PCOS risk developing chronic diseases like diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, endometrial cancer, and infertility.

PCOS vs. PCOD Visible Symptoms

Women with PCOS conditions can have visible symptoms such as severe acne, excessive facial hair growth, weight gain, fatigue, etc., early in life. However, PCOD might be evident later in life.


PCOD is a milder condition that can be corrected with slight changes in diet, exercise, and lifestyle. However, PCOS is a serious condition that cannot be cured, but symptoms can be effectively managed using medications, lifestyle changes, and exercise routines.


Though the exact causes of PCOS and PCOD are unknown, PCOS is a disorder of the endocrine system that causes the ovaries to produce androgens (male sex hormones). On the other hand, PCOD is characterised by the production of immature eggs by the ovaries that result in hormonal imbalance.

There may be a link between PCOD and excessive testosterone levels, insulin, and low-grade inflammation. PCOS may be caused by high testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels.


PCOD is more common than PCOS, and around one-third of women worldwide suffer from the former.

PCOS and PCOD and Their Relation to Diet

Many people presume PCOS and PCOD are caused by poor diet. However, it is important to understand that while an unhealthy diet cannot directly cause PCOS or PCOD, eating a healthy diet helps better manage symptoms, prevents the condition from recurring, and improves overall health and well-being. PCOS is associated with obesity, and eating low sugar can help with weight loss and insulin resistance and relieve symptoms.

With both conditions, eating a healthy diet that is free of processed and junk foods and regular exercise show improvements in symptoms.

What is the Difference Between PCOS and PCOD vs. Endometriosis?

Another common condition related to the female reproductive system is endometriosis.

Endometriosis is a painful condition in which the lining of the uterus (endometrium) grows outside the uterus in the ovaries, fallopian tube, or vagina. This condition primarily causes extreme pelvic pain and excruciating menstrual cramps. These symptoms differ from common symptoms of PCOS and PCOD, enabling medical professionals to differentiate between PCOS and PCOD vs. endometriosis. The treatment for endometriosis is also different from PCOS and PCOD.

The Bottom Line

PCOS and PCOD are common menstrual health issues, but if not treated well, they can lead to severe health concerns. PCOS vs. PCOD is a common confusion, but medical professionals will be able to identify and treat them appropriately. The correct diagnosis will help you get the best treatment. Contact Metropolis diagnostic lab to help you book any medical test.

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The human body is prone to developing cancers of different kinds. While some are common for both sexes, others are more gender-specific, such as prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer that plagues men around the world. Fortunately, prostate cancer is also quite treatable when caught early. 

To determine this form of cancer, something known as Prostate-specific antigen, or PSA, is measured in a special diagnostic test. This blog discusses PSA protein, the details of the PSA test, how it is measured, what the normal ranges of PSA are, and when you should be worried.

What is PSA?

PSA or Prostate-specific antigen is a protein that is produced by the prostate gland in response to inflammation. PSA levels vary naturally throughout the life cycle of a man and maybe high even in men who don’t have prostate cancer and have conditions like benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is an enlargement of the prostate gland due to obstruction of the flow of urine. However, high PSA levels may also be associated with prostate cancer.

What is a PSA test?

A PSA test is a simple blood test that can help detect early signs of prostate cancer. High levels of PSA indicate that there may be an increased risk of developing this condition, but this isn’t always accurate. Only about 25% of cases of prostate cancer are actually diagnosed at an early stage, so having regular PSA tests can help screen for this disease even if there are no symptoms.

How is a PSA Test Administered?

The test requires a sample of your blood. This blood sample is withdrawn from a vein, typically the arm. A healthcare professional or a diagnostic worker will pierce a needle into the crook of your elbow to draw blood. 

This blood sample will be sent to a laboratory for further testing. Once you get the reports, make an appointment with your doctor to discuss the results, as they are best suited to inform you about your prostate health. 

How Do I Prepare for a PSA Test?

There is no one definitive way to prepare for a PSA test, but here are some tips that may help:

  • Make sure you are physically and emotionally prepared for the test. Keep all your documentation ready, including your doctor’s prescription, if you are taking medication for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
  • Be sure to drink plenty of fluids before the test and refrain from consuming food for a few hours as advised by the doctor or technician.

How is Prostate-Specific Antigen measured?

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker of prostate cancer that is typically measured in blood serum. There are several ways to measure PSA, but the most common is the 4-point immunoassay. In this test, PSA levels are read against four reference values to determine the concentration of PSA in a sample. The normal range for PSA levels varies depending on the assay used, but it typically falls within the low-to-normal range.

Doctors use PSA levels to classify men as having a low, normal, or high risk for prostate cancer. They also use PSA levels to monitor treatment for prostate cancer.

Factors That Affect PSA Levels

Many factors affect PSA levels, including age, race, and health habits. However, the most important factor is a man’s prostate size. A healthy man with a small prostate will have a low PSA level, while a man with a large prostate will have a high level.

Understanding PSA Levels 

PSA levels are measured in nanograms per millimeter, or ng/mL. Here are four likely outcomes of the test and inferences you can draw from them: 

  • For men who have PSA levels between 0 and 2.5 ng/mL, prostate cancer is highly unlikely. At this stage, the chances of developing cancer are low, and further testing is generally not required.
  • For men who have PSA levels of between 2.5 and 4.0 ng/mL is considered to be in the normal range. So, if you are not exhibiting other risk factors, if your PSA levels are stable, and if you aren’t administering BPH medication, your doctor may rule out additional testing. You can retake the test after a while, as directed by your physician.
  • Your doctor might ask for additional tests to check for other benign conditions if PSA levels are higher than 4.0 ng/mL. For instance, high PSA levels could be a sign of a urinary tract infection
  • PSA levels of 10 ng/mL or higher are a cause for concern. At this stage, the probability of having prostate cancer is quite high.

Normal PSA Levels By Age

As mentioned earlier, PSA levels increase with age due to the natural growth of the prostate gland. A physician will therefore take your age into account when examining your PSA levels.

  • For patients between the ages of 40 and 50 years, PSA levels of between 0 and 2.5 ng/mL are considered normal.
  • For patients between the ages of 50 and 60, PSA levels of between 0 and 3.5 ng/mL are acceptable.
  • For patients between the ages of 60 and 70, PSA levels of 0 to 4.5 ng/mL are average.
  • For patients between the age of 70 and above, PSA levels of between 0 and 6.5 ng/mL are considered normal.


In summary, the prostate-specific antigen test (PSA test) is an examination that is used to screen for the risk of prostate cancer. Although the average PSA of a man is between 0 and 4 ng/mL, the levels might vary significantly with an increase in age. If you are concerned about your PSA level, talk to your doctor about whether or not you should have the test done.

To get the procedure done, simply visit one of the Metropolis Healthcare Labs diagnostic centres in your city. We offer safe and accurate PSA tests at an affordable price. We also offer a multitude of other tests, such as CRP tests, prolactin tests, homocysteine tests, and more. To book an appointment to enquire about prices, contact us today.

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Metabolic Encephalopathy

Abnormalities in brain function are not common disorders. People may go through such conditions for various reasons, like genetic disorders, structural damage, a side effect of medication, or as a result of systemic illness. One such type of brain dysfunctionality is known as metabolic encephalopathy. It is primarily a result of an underlying illness such as renal failure, heart disease, diabetes, and liver disease. This condition is reversible if the systemic illness is treated well. However, the condition may result in temporary or permanent brain damage if ignored. 

Metabolic encephalopathy is commonly defined as an alteration in consciousness caused due to brain dysfunction (due to impaired cerebral metabolism). People with this condition often experience a changed mental state. They may feel confused and overwhelmed and act differently than their normal behavior. Therefore, it is essential to identify, diagnose, and treat this condition in time. To help you understand metabolic encephalopathy, we have listed all the necessary information, including its types, causes, symptoms, and treatment.

What is Metabolic Encephalopathy?

In simple words, metabolic encephalopathy is a disorder that affects brain function. It can be temporary or permanent, depending on the severity of the damage. This condition is mainly caused by other severe health concerns. These problems affect electrolytes and blood chemicals in the body, resulting in brain cell damage. It is a severe health condition that can cause structural brain damage if not treated well.

Types of Metabolic Encephalopathy

Metabolic encephalopathy is categorized into two types depending on the severity of the condition: acute and toxic.

  • Acute Metabolic Encephalopathy is caused by a deficiency of vitamins, oxygen, or glucose. It is mostly reversible and can be controlled with medication and suitable treatment.
  • Toxic Metabolic Encephalopathy is caused by toxins, infection, organ dysfunctionality, or organ failure. It is a comparatively serious health condition. It needs urgent medical supervision and treatment. In some cases, patients may not recover completely.

While Metabolic Encephalopathy affects everyone differently, here are some common signs and symptoms.

Symptoms of Metabolic Encephalopathy

Symptoms may vary depending on the type of encephalopathy you have.

  • Delirium – Confused thinking and less attention span. It is a serious health concern and needs immediate attention
  • Lethargy – Caused by a lack of nutrition and a high level of toxins in the body
  • Muscle weakness
  • Loss of memory or dementia
  • Difficulty in motor tasks such as walking, eating, writing, etc., is also known as ataxia
  • Illusions
  • Hallucinations
  • Decreased consciousness
  • Mood disorders
  • Breathing problems
  • Mental health issues such as depression, anxiety
  • Vision problems
  • Seizures

Causes of Metabolic Encephalopathy

Pre-existing health issues or chronic illnesses such as diabetes, liver dysfunction, heart disease, and kidney failure are the primary causes of metabolic encephalopathy. These health problems result in the accumulation of toxic elements in the body, which affects the brain cells.

Here are some risk factors that result in metabolic encephalopathy.

  • Exposure to toxic chemicals can lead to brain cell damage, exacerbating brain dysfunction
  • Certain medications disturb blood chemicals, resulting in brain damage
  • Illicit drugs affect brain function
  • Organ failure
  • Dehydration and malnutrition greatly contribute to brain dysfunctionality
  • Excessive alcohol consumption could damage brain cells, leading to metabolic encephalopathy
  • Thiamine deficiency
  • High blood pressure affects the neurological system, resulting in brain damage
  • Severe and constant fever

Diagnosis of Metabolic Encephalopathy

Generally, doctors first conduct a physical exam to understand the signs and symptoms of metabolic encephalopathy in an individual. Then they suggest undergoing a blood test, a urine test, CT and MRI scans, electroencephalography, etc., depending on the patient’s specific health problems.

Treatment of Metabolic Encephalopathy

An essential step in treating metabolic encephalopathy is treating the underlying illness. Further treatment and medication are determined according to the symptoms and signs of the patient. Usually, the treatment involves recovering the deficiencies, like vitamins. Doctors may also suggest living in a stress-free environment. Some patients may need treatment to control ammonia levels in the blood. Diet modifications are also required to treat metabolic encephalopathy. 

The Bottom Line

Metabolic encephalopathy is a critical health condition and needs immediate attention. But proper diagnosis and correct treatment can help patients lead a better life. We at Metropolis help you get an accurate diagnosis with various tests. Register your profile and book a spot urine test today.

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Air Pollution Diseases

Air pollution is a silent killer. It’s responsible for millions of deaths each year, and the number is only increasing as industrialization and urbanisation continue to rise. What’s even more alarming is that air pollution doesn’t just cause respiratory problems. It’s been linked to an array of other diseases, some of which are life-threatening. In this blog post, we will explore 10 of the most common air pollution diseases. From heart disease to cancer, these are the diseases caused by air pollution that you need to be aware of if you want to protect yourself and your loved ones from its dangers.

List Of 10 Common Diseases Caused By Air Pollution

Air pollution is a major environmental and health risk. Here is a list of 10 diseases caused by air pollution.

Cardiovascular Diseases

Pollution has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It can lead to inflammation and damage to the heart and blood vessels. Studies have shown that exposure to air pollution can increase the risk of heart attack, stroke, and other forms of heart disease.

There are a few ways in which air pollution can contribute to cardiovascular disease:

  • Particulate matter can enter the lungs and cause inflammation. This can lead to an increase in blood pressure and damage to the lining of the arteries.
  • Pollutants can trigger changes in heart rate and rhythm, which can lead to arrhythmias or cardiac arrest.
  • Long-term exposure to air pollution has been linked with an increased risk of atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries.


Cancer is one of the most common air pollution diseases. It is caused by exposure to carcinogenic airborne particles, such as those released from burning fossil fuels.

Cancer can develop in any organ of the body. But, it is most commonly found in the lungs. Non-small cell lung cancer is a more common type of lung cancer. It accounts for about 80% of all cases. It is generally less aggressive than small-cell lung cancer and has a better prognosis.

Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer too. It is responsible for about 85% of all cases. Other risk factors include exposure to secondhand smoke, radon gas, asbestos, and air pollution.

Neurological Disorders

Air pollution has been linked to a variety of neurological disorders as well. Some of the illnesses include Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.

Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative brain disorder. It leads to memory loss and cognitive decline. Studies have shown that air pollution can accelerate the progression of Alzheimer’s disease.

Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder. It affects movement and coordination. Air pollution has been linked to an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease.

Gastrointestinal Disorders

Several gastrointestinal disorders have been linked to air pollution, including irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis. Studies have shown that people who live in areas with high levels of air pollution are more likely to suffer from these conditions.

Symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders include abdominal pain, diarrhoea, constipation, and bloating. Gastrointestinal disorders can be very serious and even life-threatening if they are not treated properly.

Kidney Diseases

Several kidney diseases can be caused by air pollution, including:

-Chronic kidney disease: This is a long-term condition that can lead to kidney failure. It is caused by the accumulation of toxins in the body, including those from air pollution.

-Acute kidney injury: This is a sudden and potentially reversible loss of kidney function. It can be caused by exposure to high levels of air pollution, particularly particulate matter.

-Dialysis: This is a treatment used for people with renal failure. It involves filtering the blood to remove waste products and excess fluid.

Liver Diseases

Exposure to air pollution is associated with an increased risk of metabolic dysfunction-linked fatty liver disease. Fatty liver disease is the accumulation of fat in the liver, which can lead to inflammation and scarring. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver that can be caused by a virus or other infection. Cirrhosis is a chronic condition that results in the hardening and scarring of the liver.

Skin Diseases

There are a variety of skin diseases that have been linked to air pollution, including eczema, psoriasis, and acne.

Eczema is a condition that causes the skin to become dry, itchy, and inflamed. It is thought that air pollution can trigger or worsen eczema flare-ups.

Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune condition that causes the skin to develop raised, red patches covered with white scales. Air pollution has been shown to trigger psoriasis flare-ups.

Acne is a common skin condition that causes pimples and blackheads. Air pollution has been linked to an increase in acne breakouts.


Asthma is a condition in which the airways narrow and swell, and produce extra mucus. This can make breathing difficult and trigger coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.

Asthma is often triggered by environmental factors such as air pollution, cold weather, or pollen. It is important to be aware of these triggers and try to avoid them if possible. If you have asthma, it is also important to have an asthma action plan in place so that you know what to do if you have an asthma attack.


Bronchitis is another common air pollution-related disease. It occurs when the bronchi, or airways, become inflamed and irritated. This can be caused by exposure to airborne irritants, such as smoke, dust, or chemical fumes. Bronchitis can also be caused by viral infections. Symptoms of bronchitis include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Bronchitis is often treated with medications, such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids. In severe cases, hospitalisation may be necessary.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a lung condition that makes it hard to breathe. COPD is caused by long-term exposure to harmful particles in the air, such as smoke from cigarettes or factory emissions. People with COPD often experience symptoms like shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing. In severe cases, COPD can be fatal.


Air pollution is a serious global problem that contributes to a wide range of diseases. Many of these diseases are preventable. So, it is important to be aware of them and take steps to protect yourself from air pollution. We hope this list has helped you understand the risks associated with air pollution. Now, it is your responsibility to avoid them. If you showcase any of the above symptoms, consult a doctor for better guidance. Visit your nearest Metropolis lab to get professional help and accurate test results.

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how to control the thyroid in the female

The thyroid is a hormone-secreting gland located in the front or lower-front region of the neck. It is identified as a butterfly-shaped protrusion that secretes its namesake hormone, primarily responsible for metabolism in the human body. The thyroid hormone is essentially a combination of two naturally occurring hormones, T3 or triiodothyronine, and T4 or thyroxine. Calcitonin is another of its essential secretions.

An abnormal or unregulated secretion of these hormones leads to thyroid dysfunction, which could result in a chronic and/or autoimmune response to the hormone’s regulation. Various dietary and lifestyle choices can often aggravate thyroid dysfunction. The condition is more prevalent among women than in men. It is essential to be aware of the thyroid gland and its functioning to better regulate body metabolism and other functions, such as menstruation and pregnancy.

How Does Thyroid Affect the Female Body?

The thyroid gland is primarily associated with the reproductive system of the female body. Thus, any dysfunction in the gland’s hormone-secreting tendency or capacity directly impacts the reproductive system at various stages. The following are some critical impacts of thyroid dysregulation on the female body.

  1. During puberty and periodic menstruation, thyroid dysfunction leads to abnormal regulation of the two stages, resulting in early puberty onset or irregularity in menstrual periods. Excessive dysfunction of the thyroid can also lead to amenorrhea or a complete absence of menstruation.
  2. During the reproductive age of females, over or under-regulated thyroid can lead to prevention or inhibition of the ovulation process. Undersecretion of the thyroid gland also exposes the ovary to a high risk of developing cysts.
  3. During the pregnancy and postpartum stages, thyroid dysregulation can be significantly disruptive to foetal growth or postpartum thyroiditis. Extreme thyroid deficiency or hypothyroidism is also known to be a severe cause of miscarriage, stillbirth, premature delivery, and haemorrhage after delivery. In cases of extreme thyroid hormone secretion or hyperthyroidism, morning sickness turns out to be severe.
  4. Thyroid dysfunction is also associated with the early onset of menopause in women, usually within 40 years. Symptoms of thyroid disorders in women often mimic those of menopause. Thus, menopause can be delayed if the thyroid symptoms are treated properly and on time.

Now that the effects of thyroid dysfunction are clear, the importance of controlling its secretion is evident. Let’s discuss some ways to control the thyroid hormone levels in the female body for healthy and optimal living.

6 Effective Ways to Control Thyroid in Women

Diet and exercise in your everyday life are the key to controlling Thyroid.

As hyper- or hypothyroidism is a dysfunction of the hormone-secreting gland, any symptoms of the disorder need to be medically evaluated and addressed via prescribed medications. In the event that symptoms like hot flashes, midnight sweating or unregulated periods appear, it is ideal to take a thyroid panel test and consult with the doctor accordingly.

  1. Slow and mindful eating

Eating mindfully can be the key to healthy thyroid regulation in the female body. As the gland and hormone are responsible for the metabolism of the body, slow-paced eating allows the thyroid gland to register the nutritional intake and process the food accordingly. Slow eating could help improve the body’s metabolic function.

  1. Practicing regular yoga and exercises

If you haven’t been into physical activities much and symptoms of thyroid dysfunction start to surface, it’s high time you focus on how to control thyroid hormone levels in the body via exercise. With the sedentary life of the present, exercising is a much-called-for initiative to undertake to regulate bodily functions well. The thyroid gland, a part of the body’s endocrine system, can be stimulated through various exercises.

Yoga is another form of physical activity you can start relying on to stimulate and regulate your body’s thyroid secretion. The endocrine system has been found to have a tendency for better regulation through various yoga asanas. Thus, one may incorporate yoga and exercise into their lifestyle along with taking the prescribed thyroid medication.

  1. Consume Vitamin A but cook your greens 

Vitamin A is a significant contributor to thyroid regulation in the female body and can make a significant difference. Some great sources of vitamin A in daily life include green vegetables, spinach, apricots, carrots, and eggs.

While consuming green and leafy vegetables contributes to better Vitamin A absorption, it is best to cook the greens instead of consuming them raw. It is because certain vegetables in the cruciferous category, like cabbages, may inhibit regular thyroid function in their raw forms. Cooking green vegetables before eating instead of consuming them through shakes and smoothies can thus be great for controlling thyroid in females by food.

  1. Include probiotics in your food

Another way to make dietary changes in your everyday life is to include probiotics in your diet. Probiotics are a great stimulant of gastrointestinal health and can also provide a significant nutritional intake during pregnancy. This, in effect, helps improve thyroid gland function, thus regulating hormonal secretion.

  1. Include fat in your diet

Consuming healthy fats may stimulate the healthy functioning of the thyroid gland, but it also boosts the functioning of the entire endocrine system of the body. It can thus be beneficial to include healthy fats, such as olive oil, healthy nuts, etc., in your diet to help regulate thyroid gland secretions.

  1. Avoid junk food

Processed and junk food can be suitably called the bane of modern living as it barely provides anything more than good taste. Although the exact causes are not known, people who rely heavily on a junk diet daily are found to be more susceptible to thyroid dysfunction than others.

Knowing how to control the thyroid in the female body is not enough, and it is ideal to go for thyroid screening from time to time. If any symptoms of the dysfunction appear, you should see your doctor and have your T3, T4, and TSH levels checked. It is best to make necessary dietary and workout changes in your everyday life in consultation with a healthcare specialist.

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Homocysteine Test Purpose and Procedure

Homocysteine is an amino acid that can form when there is a problem with the body’s amino acid processing. It can increase the risk of blood clots, heart attack, and stroke. A blood test to measure homocysteine levels is often done as part of a routine health checkup. In a healthy human, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, and Folic Acid are responsible for breaking down homocysteine.

Homocysteine is produced when the body breaks down proteins. Elevated levels of homocysteine have been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, dementia, and various other medical conditions. There are several ways to measure your homocysteine levels, but the most common procedure is a blood test.

Homocysteine is Mainly Converted into Two Substances:


Methionine is responsible for creating protein, thus making it crucial to our functioning.


Cysteine is generated from methionine and is important for the well-being of your liver.

The deficiency of important vitamins like B6 and B12 is one of the primary reasons leading to increased homocysteine in your body.

What DoYou Need to Know About The Homocysteine Test?

The purpose of the homocysteine test is to detect problems with the body’s amino acid processing and to determine whether or not treatment is necessary. The test can be used to screen people at high risk for these conditions. The procedure for performing the homocysteine test is simple and usually takes only a few minutes to complete. Most insurance companies cover the cost of homocysteine test.

Signs & Symptoms You Should Take A Homocysteine Test

The sign and symptoms that may indicate you have an issue of homocysteine levels are as follows:


If you are constantly feeling weak and tired despite resting properly and maintaining a clean diet, your doctor might recommend you take a homocysteine test.


Seizures are a more extreme symptom that might indicate the fact that it is time for you to take a homocysteine test.

Dislocation of The Lens of The Eye: 

This is one of the most extreme signs, leading to doctors recommending a homocysteine test. Since your eye is one of the most important parts of your body, it is crucial to be proactive and look for any changes to your eyes so that you can seek medical help before things get worse.


This is a condition where your bones get weak, leading to you experiencing extreme back and joint pains. If not treated in time, osteoporosis can lead to fractures. 

Blood Clots:

If not treated promptly, blood clots can be fatal. Untreated blood clots lead to heart attacks and strokes. If your doctor has reasons to believe that you have a blood clot, they might recommend you take a homocysteine test.

The Procedure of Homocysteine Test:

A blood sample is obtained from the patient by venipuncture. The levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides are measured in the sample. Then, the level of homocysteine is calculated using these values.

Preparations for The Homocysteine Test:

  • For the test results to be accurate, the blood needs to be collected from a patient in a fasting state.
  • The patient needs to fast for at least 10 to 12 hours before blood is collected to avoid affecting the test result negatively.
  • Typically, overnight fasting is preferred as this makes it easier for the health care professional to collect the blood in the morning.
  • Overnight fasting is also ideal as you will spend most of your hours sleeping and not working, thus avoiding lethargy and weakness.
  • It is imperative to note that drinking water is acceptable during this period. Refraining completely from drinking water is not recommended.
  • For diabetics, consulting physicians to understand if they can take the medicines that they usually take, either orally or through injections, is imperative.
  • Morning beverages like tea and coffee should also be refrained from until the blood sample is collected. 

What are Some of The Costs Associated with The Homocysteine Test?

It is recommended to do the homocysteine test from a trustworthy lab with a proven track record. You can get this test done at Metropolis Healthcare Lab for a price of ₹1350. Expert healthcare professionals will visit your home or the location of your choice to collect the blood sample. The entire process is swift and simple. 

What are The Risks of High Levels of Homocysteine?

The purpose of a homocysteine test is to determine if someone has high levels of the amino acid homocysteine. A homocysteine test can also be used to screen for risk factors for heart disease or stroke.

What are The Benefits of Low Levels of Homocysteine?

The benefits of low levels of homocysteine are still being studied, but it is thought that they may play a role in preventing heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and some forms of cancer. 

How Can You Measure Your Homocysteine Level?

The most common homocysteine test is the methionine/homocysteine test. It’s a blood test that measures the levels of methionine and homocysteine together. There are a variety of tests available that measure homocysteine levels. The most common type of test is an immunoassay test. This test uses antibodies to detect the level of homocysteine in the blood. A more complicated type of test, called a chemiluminescence assay, uses light to detect the level of homocysteine in the blood. If you are concerned about your homocysteine level, it is important to talk with your doctor about which test is best for you.


A homocysteine test is a blood test that can be used to diagnose various medical conditions. The purpose of a homocysteine test is to measure the level of this compound in the blood. When you pay for a blood test, you want the process to be swift and the results to be accurate. This is why you should only rely on a brand like Metropolis Healthcare. With labs spread across India and many African and Asian countries, Metropolis Healthcare Laboratories is a name you can trust. The professionalism and experience of your healthcare professionals mean that you won’t have any trouble when you book your next homocysteine test with us.

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Infertility in Females

Infertility is a condition where you may try to get pregnant through frequent and unprotected sex for at least a year without success. It could be due to a combination of both male and female infertility. The exact causes of infertility in females are hard to pin down. While the diagnosis may be difficult, treatment is readily available depending on the ground and stage.

Understanding the Female Reproductive System

It is difficult to determine the leading cause of female infertility. But to understand infertility, you must understand every step of the human reproduction process. To conceive, every effort has to fall into place in the exact order below-

  • Either of the two ovaries must release a mature egg.
  • The fallopian tube has to pick up this egg.
  • The sperm has to reach the uterus through the cervix after intercourse and enter the fallopian tube to fertilise the egg.
  • The egg, once fertilised, has to shift to the uterus.
  • The fertilised egg has to attach itself to the insides of the uterus, where it will be nurtured to grow.

Several factors can disrupt this process in women, leading to one or more infertility causes in females. 

Types of Infertility in Females

There are mainly four causes of female infertility. Each one is described below in detail.

1. Ovulation Disorders

One of the most common causes of infertility in females is infrequent ovulation or the complete absence of it. This disorder is caused by irregular reproductive hormone production by the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. Ovulation disorders can take many forms, like,

  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) causes hormone imbalances, resulting in ovulation disorders. It is considered one of the most common infertility causes in females and can be caused by insulin resistance, obesity, excessive or abnormal facial hair growth, and acne.
  • Hypothalamus Dysfunction: FSH or Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, and LH, or Luteinizing Hormone, stimulate ovulation every month in women. The secretion of these hormones may be adversely affected due to excess emotional, physical, or mental stress or sudden weight loss or gain. Such a condition is manifested through irregular or missed periods.
  • Premature Ovarian Failure: Also known as primary ovarian insufficiency, this abnormality is caused by an autoimmune response or the sudden or early loss of eggs due to chemotherapy or genetics.
  • High Prolactin: Sometimes, the pituitary gland may produce too much prolactin, reducing estrogen production and causing infertility.

2. Tubal Infertility

The fallopian tubes may be damaged, blocking an egg from entering it, and leading to tubal infertility. Fallopian tubes can be blocked or damaged due to,

  • A pelvic inflammatory disease infects the fallopian tubes and uterus through gonorrhoea or STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections)
  • Past surgeries in the pelvis or abdomen

3. Endometriosis

This type of infertility in females occurs when uterine tissues start growing outside the uterus. In such cases, the extra tissues can be removed surgically but may leave scars, which can block the fallopian tubes. Endometriosis can damage a fertilised egg.

4. Uterine or Cervical Causes

Sometimes the cause of infertility in females can be cervical or uterine, which can prevent egg implantation or even result in a miscarriage. These causes can be of various forms, such as:

  • Fibroids (myomas) are common in the uterus
  • An unusually shaped uterus
  • Cervical stenosis that narrows the cervix area
  • Inability to produce mucus from the cervix to allow easy travel of the sperm into the uterus

There are still other cases where infertility in females may be due to unknown reasons. And sometimes, these could be a combination of factors and causes in both the male and female partners.

Drugs That Cause Infertility in Females

Apart from the causes listed above, some drugs and medicines may also lead to one or more types of infertility in females. If you are currently taking any of the following medications, it is best to discuss their side effects with an expert:

  • Psychiatric medications such as antidepressants or antipsychotics
  • Steroids such as anabolic or corticosteroids are used to treat lupus or asthma
  • Anti-epileptic drugs such as Valproate and Phenytoin
  • Thyroid drugs can also affect prolactin levels
  • Skin products that contain progesterone or estrogen
  • Chemotherapy, especially with toxic alkylating agents

Risk Factors for Female Infertility

To understand the leading cause of female infertility, it is crucial to consider some critical lifestyle factors that may put you at high risk.

1. Age Factor

In women, post the age of 30, the rate of follicle loss picks up speed, resulting in fewer and poorer quality eggs, making conception and pregnancy difficult. It may also increase the chances of a miscarriage.

2. Tobacco Consumption

Smoking and other forms of tobacco consumption can cause irreparable damage to your cervix and fallopian tubes. It also increases the likelihood of ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage. 

3. Obesity or Malnutrition

Being overweight or excessively underweight can also put you at risk of infertility. Maintaining a healthy body mass index, or BMI, is essential for regular and healthy ovulation and for the chances of pregnancy to be high.

4. STDs

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) or infections such as gonorrhoea or chlamydia can severely damage the fallopian tubes. It is advisable to maintain healthy sexual relations with your partners and not engage in unprotected sex with multiple partners.

5. Alcohol Consumption

Excessive consumption of alcohol can also increase the chances of infertility in women after a certain age.

So, if you are trying to get pregnant or plan to conceive in the future, it is good to be aware of these infertility causes in females and steer clear of the risk factors. To be safe, you can get a complete gynaecological test done with Metropolis Healthcare.

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