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Gastrointestinal Disease: Understanding Symptoms, Causes, Types, and Treatment




What are gastrointestinal diseases?

Gastrointestinal diseases is a broad term which encompasses conditions that impact the digestive system, stretching from the mouth to the anus. These diseases can broadly be classified into two categories: functional and structural. Each category manifests itself differently, has varying symptoms, and requires distinct modes of treatment.

What are functional gastrointestinal diseases?

Functional gastrointestinal diseases are typically characterised by abnormal movements in the gastrointestinal tract, despite appearing normal during examinations.

Common examples of symptoms of functional gastrointestinal disease symptoms constipation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), excess gas, and bloating.

Many factors can disrupt the GI tract's motility, such as:

  • Eating a diet low in fibre
  • Lack of regular exercise
  • Changes in routine, such as travelling
  • High intake of dairy products
  • Stress
  • Overuse of certain medications

What are structural gastrointestinal diseases?

Unlike functional disorders, structural gastrointestinal diseases are accompanied by visual disturbances in the digestive tract along with its abnormal functioning. Treatment of these conditions often requires a surgical intervention. Examples of structural gastrointestinal disease symptoms include haemorrhoids, diverticular disease, colonic polyps, colon cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease.

If you are experiencing gastrointestinal disease symptoms such as blood in your stool or persistent abdominal pain, it may indicate a structural gastrointestinal disease. Don’t ignore these signs; consult a doctor immediately.

What are some of the common gastrointestinal diseases that can be treated?

Whether functional or structural in nature, many gastrointestinal disease treatments can be effectively managed with appropriate plans. Below we explore some of the common disorders:


As a common functional disorder, constipation makes bowel movements difficult and infrequent. A diet rich in fiber, followed by a regular physical activity and addressing the urge to defecate can effectively manage this condition.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

IBS is characterised by abnormal contractions of the intestinal muscles, which causes symptoms like abdominal pain, excess gas, bloating, and irregular bowel habits. Lifestyle changes and prescribed medications can help in managing IBS.


Haemorrhoids, a structural disorder, is a condition characterized by swollen veins in the anal canal that cause discomfort and bleeding. Depending on the severity, treatment may involve medications or surgery.

Perianal Abscesses

A perianal abscess is a structural gastrointestinal disease in which a pus-filled cavity forms near the anus due to an infection of the anal glands. Symptoms include anal pain and possibly fever. Treatment consists of draining the abscess under local anesthesia.

Anal Fistula

Following an abscess, an abnormal tube-like passage or fistula might form between the anal canal and the skin near the anal opening. This structural gastrointestinal disease causes discomfort, pain, and bleeding and usually warrants a surgical intervention for closure.

Diverticular Disease

Diverticula are small pouches that are formed in the wall of the digestive tract. When these become inflamed or infected, it leads to a condition known as diverticulitis, a type of structural gastrointestinal disease. Symptoms of this condition range from abdominal pain to changes in bowel habits. Severe cases may require a surgical intervention.

Colon Polyps and Cancer

Colon polyps are small clumps of cells that form on the lining of the colon. Although most polyps are harmless, some can progress to colon cancer over time. Regular screening is crucial for the early detection and treatment of this gastrointestinal disease. Symptoms of colon cancer include changes in bowel habits, blood in the stool, and unexplained weight loss.


Colitis is an inflammation of the lining of the large intestine which is caused by an infection, ischemia (insufficient blood supply), or any other causes. This condition often presents gastrointestinal disease symptoms such as diarrhoea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity.

Remember, consulting a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis is important to ensure appropriate gastrointestinal disease treatment.

Can gastrointestinal diseases be prevented?

Although not all of the gastrointestinal disease causes can be completely prevented, but a healthy lifestyle can significantly reduce your risk. Regular exercise, a balanced diet rich in fibre, adequate hydration and stress management are some preventive measures that you can adopt. Furthermore, regular health check-ups for early detection of potential health issues are advisable.

Paying attention to changes in bowel habits or unusual symptoms can also lead to early detection of potential gastrointestinal disease. These includes persistent abdominal pain, unexpected weight loss, unusual fatigue or changes in bowel movements.

Other types of gastrointestinal diseases

Apart from those mentioned above, there are numerous other functional and structural gastrointestinal conditions such as:

Each type of gastrointestinal disease type presents a unique challenge that require a specific diagnostic approaches and treatment plans.


Navigating through the path of gastrointestinal diseases can be intimidating. However, with an accurate knowledge about various gastrointestinal disease types, their causes and their symptoms, you are better equipped to manage your health. Prompt diagnosis through appropriate tests plays a crucial role in gastrointestinal disease treatment.

Metropolis Healthcare, with its advanced diagnostic labs and at-home collection services, ensures that you have access to reliable pathology testing and health check-ups at your convenience. Trust them to provide accurate insights and personalised care, empowering you to prioritise your health. Remember, your well-being is within your control with the right knowledge and professional medical care.

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