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Understanding Hernia: Symptoms, Treatment, Types, and Causes



What is a Hernia?

A hernia is a medical condition in which internal organs bulge through a weakened muscle or tissue, typically in the abdomen or groin.

What are Some Common Hernia Locations?

The most common locations for Hernias are:

  • Above the abdomen via the diaphragm
  • In the groin via the lower abdominal wall
  • Along the central front of the abdomen
  • Through a previous abdominal surgery site

What are the Different Types of Hernias?

The following are the different hernia types:

  • Inguinal Hernias

They are situated in the lower abdomen above the leg crease, sometimes on both sides and are caused by weakened spots near the pubic area.

  • Sportsman's Hernias

Athletes often experience persistent groin discomfort that does not show any swelling. It is commonly associated with direct inguinal hernias.

  • Femoral Hernias

These groin hernias are prevalent in women and develop beneath the groin fold, close to the femoral vein.

  • Incisional Hernias

These hernias develop at sites where previous surgeries were performed in the abdomen. They can vary in size and might deteriorate as time progresses.

  • Umbilical Hernias

They are located close to the belly button and can arise either from birth or later in life, often triggered by factors such as obesity or pregnancy.

  • Epigastric Hernias

More common in men, these hernias develop between the breastbone and navel because of weakened abdominal wall muscles or tendons.

  • Ventral Hernias

Like epigastric hernias, these hernias result from weakened abdominal wall muscles, possibly causing the intestine or sacs to protrude.

  • Spigelian Hernias

This is a rare type that occurs between the fibres of abdominal muscles, often on the right side. These can be hard to detect and typically develop later in life.

  • Hiatal Hernias

Unlike other hernias, they cause acid reflux due to a weakness in the diaphragm.

How Common are Hernias?

Hernias are common, affecting 15–20% of people.

  • Inguinal hernias are most common in men, affecting about 25%
  • Hiatal hernias affect 20% of Americans, rising to 50% after age 50.
  • About 15% of newborns have congenital hernias, mainly umbilical.

How Serious is a Hernia?

While many hernias start as minor issues, if ignored, they can worsen with time. A hernia can become serious when it becomes trapped in the opening it protrudes through and cannot retract.

What are Hernia Symptoms?

Hernia symptoms vary based on its size and location. For instance:

  • Bulge or lump in the abdomen or groin
  • Pain, burning, or discomfort, especially when coughing, straining, or lifting
  • Pulling sensation around the lump
  • Additional symptoms may include shooting pain, vomiting, and constipation.

However, some hernias may be asymptomatic.

What Does a Hernia Look Like?

Hernias usually look like a lump or bulge under the skin, but some, like femoral hernias and hiatal hernias, may not be visible from the outside.

What Does a Hernia Feel Like?

A hernia may feel like a protrusion or mass in the abdomen or groin, potentially causing slight discomfort, ache, or pressure in the affected area.

What are the First Signs of a Hernia?

Common hernia symptoms comprise:

  • Pain, burning, or discomfort, particularly during coughing, straining, or lifting
  • The sensation of pulling around the lump
  • Persistent bulge when lying down
  • Increasing discomfort
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Difficulty with bowel movements
  • Abdominal bloating
  • Elevated heart rate
  • Fever
  • A protrusion or lump in the abdomen or groin

Are Hernia Symptoms in Women Different From Hernia Symptoms in Men?

Hernia symptoms vary depending on the type of hernia and not the patient's gender. For instance, inguinal hernias are more common in men, whereas femoral hernias are more prevalent in women.

What are the Causes of Hernia?

Causes of hernia include:

  • Weakness or opening in the muscles or tissues of the body, allowing organs or other tissues to protrude through. This weakness can be congenital, meaning present from birth, or acquired later in life due to factors such as ageing, injury, or strain.
  • A congenital diaphragmatic hernia that weakens muscles from birth
  • Ageing-related muscle weakening
  • Injury or surgical trauma that creates weakened areas
  • Intense physical exertion or lifting heavy objects
  • Persistent coughing or conditions like Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD)
  • Pregnancy (especially multiple pregnancies)
  • Straining during bowel movements due to constipation,
  • Being overweight or obese
  • The presence of ascites.

Are There Any Risk Factors for Developing a Hernia?

Several factors increase the risk of developing a hernia, including:

  • Ageing
  • Pregnancy
  • Obesity
  • Chronic cough
  • Stress
  • Occupation
  • Past surgery
  • Other factors include
    • Family history
    • Genetic Predispositions
    • Diabetes
    • Polycystic kidney disease
    • Midline incisions for PD catheter placement may also raise the risk

What are the Possible Complications of a Hernia?

If left untreated, a hernia can lead to complications such as:

  • Blood flow to the hernia is cut off, leading to tissue inflammation, infection, and necrosis.
  • The hernia becomes trapped, causing intense pain, nausea, vomiting, and potential bowel obstruction.
  • The intestines become stuck, preventing the passage of gas or stool, resulting in severe abdominal discomfort, nausea, and vomiting.
  • Pain or pressure from hernia enlargement
  • Infections

How is a Hernia Diagnosed?

Here is how hernia diagnosis takes place:

  • External hernias can be detected through physical exams, manifesting as visible or palpable bulges.
  • For inguinal hernias in men, a physical exam often includes groin and testicle palpation, along with coughing.
  • Common imaging methods include:
    • Ultrasound: To assess for inguinal or scrotal hernias, particularly in men.
    • CT Scan: Used to rule out other causes of abdominal pain and swelling.
    • MRI: Useful when hernia-related pain worsens during exercise, even without a visible bulge.
  • Imaging tests may involve contrast dye injection and are used to detect complications like trapped hernias or compromised blood supply, which may require further medical attention.

What are the Treatments for Hernias?

  • In children, manual pressure may be applied to reduce the bulge as a hernia treatment before considering surgery.
  • Enlarging or painful hernias typically require surgical intervention to prevent complications. Two types of surgeries as hernia treatment are-:
    • Open hernia repair: Involves making an incision in the groin, pushing protruding tissue back, and reinforcing the weakened area with synthetic mesh.
    • Minimally invasive hernia repair: Surgeon operates through small incisions in the abdomen using laparoscopic or robotic instruments, repairing the hernia with synthetic mesh.

Can Hernias Be Dangerous If Left Untreated?

Yes, hernias can be dangerous if neglected. When herniated contents are trapped, it can lead to strangulation, restricting blood supply to the affected tissue.

What Should I Expect If I Have a Hernia?

If you have a hernia, you can expect a noticeable bulge or lump in the affected area and potential discomfort or pain, especially when coughing, straining, or lifting.

How Should I Take Care of Myself While Living With a Hernia?

Ensure that you:

  • Don't Lift heavy weights
  • Maintain a healthy weight
  • Follow medication instructions
  • Limit strenuous activities
  • Quit smoking
  • Wear loose-fitting clothing

What is a Sports Hernia?

A sports hernia, also known as athletic pubalgia, is a condition characterised by chronic pain due to injuries to the muscles, ligaments, or tendons in the groin or lower abdomen.


A hernia occurs when organs or tissues protrude through weak spots in the abdominal wall, leading to discomfort and potential complications if left untreated. Common hernia causes include muscle weakness, strain, and other factors like ageing or pregnancy. With advanced testing facilities and expert medical professionals, Metropolis Healthcare/Labs offers a trusted partner in managing hernias and ensuring early diagnosis hence leading to effective treatment.

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