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HLAB27 Test Overview
Human leukocyte antigen HLA-B27 is a MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class I surface antigen encoded by the B locus on chromosome 6 and presents antigenic peptides (derived from self and non-self antigens) to T cells. HLA-B27 is strongly associated with ankylosing spondylitis and other associated inflammatory diseases, such as psoriatic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and reactive arthritis. HLA B27 is considered to be an important criteria for classification of Axial spondyloarthropathies & helps in establishing early diagnosis of ankylosing spondyloarthropathies before the development of irreversible deformities.
HLA-B27 is present in approximately 89% of patients with ankylosing spondylitis, 79% of patients with Reiter syndrome, and 42% of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. However, it is not diagnostic for these disorders. Approximately 8% of the normal population carries the HLA-B27 antigen.
Human Leukocyte Antigen B27 is a type of protein. It is found on the top surface of white blood cells. A test of HLA B27 helps to identify the protein HLA B27. These antigens are believed to help the immune system in identifying the difference between healthy tissues and other substances, that are likely to cause infections in the body. HLA B27 is a protein. It is helpful in immune system dysfunction. If there is HLA B27 in your white blood cells, it is likely to propel the immune system to attack healthy cells. If this happens, then the body may become susceptible to various autoimmune diseases or other immune-mediated problems.
Why Is The Test Performed?
A doctor may order an HLA B27 test to monitor how far an autoimmune disease has progressed in the body. This protein's presence is linked with several autoimmune and immune-mediated problems, such as the following:
· Ankylosing spondylitis: It is the culprit behind inflammation in the bones of the spine.
· Reactive arthritis: It is known to cause inflammation in the joints, eyes and urethra. It may also cause lesions on the skin.
· Anterior Uveitis: It can cause swelling and irritation in the eye.
The HLA B27 blood test may also be used along with other blood tests, imaging tests or urine tests to diagnose several autoimmune diseases. Symptoms like pain in the joints, stiffness or swelling along the spine, chest and neck, inflammation in the joints, lesions on the skin, and repeated inflammation of the eye may also compel a doctor to recommend this test.
Doctors may even recommend HLA antigen tests if a patient is undergoing a transplant of kidney or bone marrow. They can help establish a good match between the patient and the donor.
When to get tested?
It is ideal to get a Human Leukocyte Antigen B27 test done if you begin experiencing symptoms related to arthritis especially if you are a male and the symptoms begin appearing in your early 30s, such as:
- Chronic joint pain
- Inflammation in some parts of the body
- Stiffness in the lower back, neck, hips, chest
- Painful inflammation in the eyes
The exact causes of autoimmune disorders associated with HLA B27 are not known.
Written by: Dr. Sanjay Gohil, MBBS, M.D, Dept. of Haematology
HLA B27 (Human Leucocyte Antigen B27) Price
Metropolis Healthcare is a leading diagnostics centre and pathology lab in India equipped with the latest state-of-the-art technologies that provides the HLA B27 (Human Leucocyte Antigen B27) with a clear pricing structure.
The HLA B27 (Human Leucocyte Antigen B27) Price in Mumbai is ₹ 2,390 .
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Frequently Asked Questions
The doctor may order the test for you if you have symptoms like pain, inflammation associated with stiffness of spine, neck, chest. HLAB27 test helps determine whether you have human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27) on the surface of your cells and in turn it helps assess the likelihood that you may be suffering from an autoimmune disorder. Those with the HLA-B27 variant are at a higher risk than the general population of developing the disorder. People who are HLA-B27 positive are also more likely to experience early onset Ankylosing spondylitis than HLA-B27 negative individuals.
HLAB27 test measures HLA-B27, which is a specific protein that is found on cell surfaces
HLAB27 test requires a blood sample. A tourniquet (elastic) band is placed tightly on the upper arm. The patient is then asked to make a fist. This helps in the build-up of blood filling the veins. The skin is disinfected before needle insertion and the blood sample is collected in vacutainer.
A healthcare provider will draw a sample of blood from the arm of the patient. They will place an elastic around the upper portion of the arm. Then the patient will need to make a fist. They will then disinfect the site from which the sample is to be drawn. They will use a clean needle to draw the required quantity of blood in a test tube or a vial.
A negative test means that there is no HLA-B27 in your blood. It is important to note that a negative HLAB27 test does not mean that you may not have an autoimmune disorder. Your doctor will make a final diagnosis basis the symptoms that you have, and test results and he may order more tests if needed. A positive test results indicates presence of HLA-B27 in your blood. If you have symptoms or signs of spondyloarthritis, a positive HLA-B27 test may help confirm the diagnosis. However, HLA-B27 is found in some normal people and does not always mean you have a disease.
If the test results come back positive, it means that the person getting tested is at an increased risk of developing some autoimmune diseases. If the person is displaying symptoms such as chronic pain, inflammation, and degenerative changes to the bones, then it is possible that they have ankylosing spondylitis, an autoimmune disorder or reactive arthritis. This is most likely true in the case of young males and if they are experiencing the symptoms before the age of 40.
If the test returns negative, then it means that the marker was not detected in the blood. However, people who do not have the antigen may also develop several autoimmune diseases. But those with the HLA B27 antigen may not necessarily develop any such conditions.
Genetics has a major role to play when it comes to determining whether the antigen will occur in the blood or not. Several genes that parents pass to their offspring, tend to control the production of such antigens.
The diseases which are associated with HLA B27 tend to manifest more frequently in men but women are also susceptible. But the symptoms related to the diseases may be less in women than in men.
- Human Leukocyte Antigen B27
- Ankylosing Spondylitis HLA
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