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Miscarriage: Symptoms, Causes, Risks and Treatment



Miscarriage is one of the most frequent pregnancy problems. It is believed that 10-20% of pregnancies end in miscarriage; other studies show that the incidence may be as high as 30%. Miscarriage is a traumatic event for couples and it is essential to understand the symptoms, causes, risks and treatment options.

What is a Miscarriage?

Miscarriage is defined as the loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week of pregnancy. Miscarriage occurs in 10–20% of all pregnancies, with more than 80% of them happening in the first trimester.

Miscarriage is a devastating experience for women, as it often comes without warning. It can lead to a range of emotions including grief, guilt and poor mental health. 

Symptoms of Miscarriage

A miscarriage may result in a variety of physical and emotional problems. Vaginal bleeding, cramps, stomach ache and back pain are all common symptoms. Other physical symptoms may include vaginal discharge, nausea and exhaustion. Women might feel various emotions including shock, disbelief, grief, guilt and resentment.

Physical Symptoms

  • Vaginal Bleeding

The detachment of the placenta from the uterine wall causes vaginal bleeding after a miscarriage. The uterus may contract due to this separation, resulting in miscarriage bleeding. Furthermore, the placenta may rip away from the uterine wall, resulting in further bleeding. In certain situations, the foetus may pass past the cervix, resulting in heavier bleeding.

  • Cramping and Pain

Cramping, abdominal pain and back pain are other frequent miscarriage symptoms. Cramping may be minor or severe and often felt in the lower abdomen. The intensity of abdominal discomfort varies from moderate to severe and may be accompanied by nausea or vomiting. In certain situations, back pain may also be present.

  • Vaginal Discharge

When a woman miscarries, her hormone levels plummet, which may increase vaginal discharge. Due to the presence of blood, the increased vaginal discharge associated with a miscarriage may be pink, brown or red. It may also have a bad odour and be accompanied by additional symptoms like itching or burning. The discharge may be thicker than usual and may include clots or fetal tissue.

  • Nausea and Fatigue

Miscarriage symptoms also include nausea and fatigue. The physical and mental stress of a miscarriage and hormonal changes in the body may induce both symptoms.

Emotional Symptoms

Miscarriage is a traumatic event for many individuals and may result in various emotional symptoms. Guilt, grief and depression are examples of such emotions. Both partners may also experience shock, rage and confusion. Other emotional symptoms may include feeling overwhelmed, numbness and trouble focusing.

It is important to remember that everyone experiences miscarriage differently and that it is normal to feel a range of emotions during this difficult time.

Causes of Miscarriage

Chromosomal Abnormality 

Miscarriage may occur due to a chromosomal abnormality in the foetus which can be caused by genetic mutations, environmental causes or a mix of both. Chromosomal abnormalities may cause the baby to grow abnormally, ultimately leading to miscarriage.


Miscarriage may be caused by diseases such as bacterial or viral infections. During pregnancy, these illnesses may be transferred from mother to foetus, causing the foetus to become sick and unable to survive. 

Uterine Abnormalities 

Miscarriage may also be caused by uterine anomalies, such as an irregularly shaped uterus or fibroids. These anomalies may disrupt the development of the foetus and make survival in the womb a challenge. 

Hormonal Imbalances 

Hormonal abnormalities may also cause miscarriages in the mother. Hormonal imbalances may influence the baby's growth and make it harder for it to survive in the womb.

Autoimmune Response 

An autoimmune reaction occurs when the body's immune system destroys healthy tissue by mistake, which may result in miscarriage. An underlying immune-related medical illness, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis can cause this.

Risks of Miscarriage


Age is a major risk factor for miscarriage. Women over the age of 35 are more likely to miscarry than younger women and the risk increases with age. After the age of 40, the probability of miscarriage rises significantly.


Lifestyle choices are another risk factor for miscarriage. Smoking, drinking alcohol and high caffeine intake may all raise your chances of miscarriage. Furthermore, environmental pollutants such as lead and mercury have been known to increase the chance of miscarriage.

Medical Conditions 

Diabetes, lupus and thyroid problems may all raise the chances of a miscarriage. Infections such as rubella and toxoplasmosis may also cause substantial damage to a growing foetus, increasing the likelihood of miscarriage.

Treatment for Miscarriage

Miscarriage is painful for many women, leaving them feeling overwhelmed and helpless. Fortunately, various treatments are available to assist women in dealing with the medical and emotional consequences of miscarriage.


One of the most significant miscarriage remedies is rest. It promotes healing and may lower stress levels. Women should relax and recuperate by taking time away from work and other activities, especially during the first trimester.


Counselling might help you cope with the emotional anguish of a miscarriage. A qualified therapist can provide women with support and direction as they deal with their sorrow and loss.


Medication may be used to help minimise the physical symptoms of a miscarriage, such as cramping and bleeding. It is important to consult with a doctor before taking any drug.

Surgical Procedure

Minor surgery may be required in certain circumstances to remove any leftover tissue from the uterus. This treatment is also known as dilation and curettage (D&C).

Emotional Support

Emotional support is essential in the healing process after a miscarriage. During this tough time, friends, family members or even internet support groups may provide comfort and understanding. The support of a spouse is essential at this time. 


Miscarriage is a traumatic event for any woman and her family. It is essential to understand the symptoms, causes, dangers and therapies connected with miscarriage to prepare for and deal with the event properly. Additionally, if you experience any of the symptoms linked with a miscarriage, you should seek professional treatment to obtain proper medical care and emotional support.

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