Hematuria (Blood in Urine): Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
Blood in urine (Hematuria) can be a concerning symptom that requires medical attention. While it can be caused by harmless factors like vigorous exercise or infections, it can also indicate more serious underlying conditions such as urinary tract infections or kidney disease. So it is important not to ignore hematuria and consult a healthcare provider for proper evaluation and diagnosis. Research estimates that at least one in every person consulting a urologist is diagnosed with the problem of blood in the urine. Timely medical intervention can help individuals identify the cause of blood in urine and get the appropriate treatment. Thus, understanding Hematuria's symptoms, causes and treatment methods would greatly help. About Hematuria Blood in urine (Hematuria) refers to the presence of blood cells in the urine because of some underlying medical condition. It is classified into gross, microscopic and dipstick hematuria based on an individual's condition. Gross hematuria is when blood is visible to the naked eye, resulting in red or pink colour urine. Microscopic hematuria is referred to the condition wherein the blood in urine is visible only through a microscope. Lastly, dipstick hematuria is identified through a colour change on a urine test strip. Blood in urine can be linked to various conditions and is determined through urinalysis during routine medical examinations. Individuals must seek medical attention if blood is detected in the urine to prevent further complications of any underlying issue. Symptoms of Hematuria Hematuria is primarily characterised by the presence of blood in urine with a varying appearance from slightly pinkish to bright red colour. Additional symptoms may include the following: Frequent urination Pain or discomfort during urination Lower abdominal pain or discomfort Pain on the sides of the back Fevers or chills (in case of urinary tract infections) Fatigue or weakness Blood clots in urine In some cases, blood in urine may not be painful, but the passage of blood clots can cause certain discomfort. Moreover, some individuals might not face symptoms except blood in the urine. Early detection and intervention are essential for identifying and addressing any potential underlying health problems associated with Hematuria. Causes of Blood in the Urine Various factors, including infections, injury, kidney stones, etc, can cause blood in urine. The following are the common causes of hematuria: Infections Hematuria can occur due to urinary tract infection (UTI) in different parts of the urinary system, like the bladder, kidney, urethra or prostate. UTI can cause inflammation and bleeding in the urinary tract, resulting in a strong urge to pee and burning pain while peeing. Injury Injury to the urinary tract caused by accidents, sports-related activities, hard exercises or any recent urinary tract procedures can lead to Hematuria. An injury to the kidneys as a result of an accident can also cause blood in the urine. Stones in the Urinary Tract The presence of kidney stones, bladder stones or ureteral stones can also be a cause of hematuria. These stones are formed by the minerals present in urine and can become hard over time resulting in blockage, pain and blood in the urine. Medical conditions of the urinary tract Certain urinary tract conditions like cystitis (inflamed bladder), benign prostate hypertrophy (enlarged prostate), endometriosis and renal diseases can cause Hematuria. Kidney diseases like glomerulonephritis can also be part of this condition. Genetic disorders Inherited disorders like sickle cell disease and haemophilia affect red blood cells and blood clotting, sometimes resulting in blood in the urine. Moreover, conditions like Alport syndrome damage small blood vessels in the kidneys and can also result in Hematuria. Cancer Blood in urine can also be associated with the presence of cancer cells resulting from bladder, kidney, urethral and prostate cancer. Cancer-related bleeding is mostly visible only through microscopic examination. Other Factors That Can Cause Hematuria Viral illness – like hepatitis Recent catheterisation Certain medications – like penicillin and aspirin Diagnosis of Hematuria Diagnosis involves several tests and examinations to determine the cause of blood in the urine. It includes the following processes: Physical exams Urine tests – urinalysis and urine culture Blood tests Urine cytology Image tests – CT scans and MRIs Kidney biopsy Cystoscopy Ultrasound tests These tests will help healthcare professionals assess the presence of blood, check for urinary tract infections, examine the bladder and kidneys and identify any abnormalities or diseases. Repeat testing might also be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment Options for Hematuria The treatment for Hematuria is based on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Some of the common treatment options for this medical condition are the following: Antibiotic Medicines Antibiotics are prescribed to eliminate urinary tract infections that cause Hematuria and reduce inflammation. These medicines will kill the bacteria causing the infection to prevent bleeding. Treatment for Kidney or Bladder Stones Lifestyle changes, medications or surgical intervention may be recommended for curing kidney or bladder stones causing blood in the urine. Usually, sound waves treatment will be used to break up these stones and prevent Hematuria. Medications and Treatments for Other Conditions Medication and treatments for other conditions include using alpha-blockers and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors for enlarged prostate, a wide range of treatments for different levels and stages of cancer, disease-modifying agents and pain modifications for sickle cell disease, diuretics and blood pressure-lowering drugs for kidney disease, etc. In some cases, no treatment may be required for hematuria if there is no serious underlying medical condition. Regular monitoring of the condition might be recommended for individuals with microscopic hematuria and no identifiable cause. In Summary Blood in urine can be a distressing symptom that requires appropriate evaluation and treatment to address the underlying condition effectively. By identifying the underlying cause and choosing the right treatment approach, healthcare providers can help individuals maintain optimal urinary tract health. Metropolis Healthcare, a leading diagnostic lab in India, specialises in blood testing and health check-ups. Visit your nearest Metropolis Healthcare Centre to receive accurate reports for conditions such as hematuria. They have achieved a good reputation in this field with qualified technicians and at-home blood sample collection facilities. Some advantages of choosing Metropolis Healthcare for hematuria testing include the following: Experienced and qualified blood collection technicians specialised in handling accurate diagnoses. Comprehensive test menu covering a wide range of blood tests related to hematuria and urinary tract health. Timely delivery of test reports through email and the Metropolis TruHealth app. Easy access to test reports and online storage for convenient record keeping. Book Urine Test Final Takeaway Do not ignore blood in urine and seek medical evaluation. Remember to follow your healthcare professional's guidance and treatment plan. Do not hesitate to seek support and ask questions about your conditions. Choose Metropolis for quick and easy diagnosis test results.
Do you keep getting urine infections? Things you must do to prevent UTIs
Urine infections and symptoms Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are infections that occur in any part of your urinary system — your kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. However, most infections involve the lower urinary tract — the bladder and the urethra. In fact, bladder infections are the most common type of UTI. Common symptoms of UTIs include a strong, frequent urge to urinate, pain or burning sensation while passing urine, bloody, cloudy, strong-smelling urine, muscle aches, pain in the abdomen, and even fever in severe infections. Women are at greater risk of getting UTIs Do you know women have a lifetime risk of above 50 percent of getting an infection of the urinary system? The cause is the physical differences between women and men. A woman's urethra is shorter than a man's. The urethra is the tube that carries the urine from the bladder to the urethral opening from where it comes out of the body. A shorter urethra makes it easier for bacteria to reach the bladder and cause infection. Things you must do to stop recurrent urine infections: Look for the cause Getting an idea of what might be giving you UTIs can help look for an effective solution. The infections are usually caused by bacteria, E. coli, being the most common cause. Your doctor will advise a urine culture and sensitivity test to check what germs are troubling your urinary system. You will be prescribed an antibiotic therapy to kill the infection-causing germs and relieve your symptoms. Please note that UTIs can be caused by germs other than E. coli too. Make sure that you do not delay the tests suggested by your doctor as they help your doctor optimize your treatment and advise the most effective medicines that suit your condition. Apart from the urine tests, your doctor may recommend an ultrasound or Computerized tomography (CT) scan of the urinary tract as well. Increase your water intake If you have been suffering from recurrent urine infections, you must have heard this advice coming through your doctor every time. Having more water helps flush out bacteria in your urine. It also dilutes the urine, which might reduce the burning sensation temporarily. The good news is having enough water daily can help prevent you from getting urine infections repeatedly. Urinate after having sexual intercourse As per some experts, sexual intercourse increases the number of bacteria in the bladder, putting women at risk of UTIs. Most gynecologists recommend women who keep getting UTIs that they must urinate after sex to reduce their risk of catching an infection. Also, washing your genitals before and after sex is also considered a good hygienic practice to keep UTIs at bay in women. Wipe from front to back There are no robust scientific claims around this health recommendation, but it’s more like a simple science. By wiping from back to front, you tend to carry bacteria (E. coli) which is very commonly present in the intestine as a harmless germ, to the vagina, where it can cause harm by causing infections. So, practice wiping your genitals from front to back. Check if your age is setting the stage for UTIs After menopause, women undergo certain physical changes, including a natural decline in the numbers of healthy bacteria in the vagina. Also, with the lack of estrogen, an important female hormone, the tissues in the vagina and urethra tends to change, leading to irritated tissues and increased risk of infection. Consult your doctor if an estrogen therapy would be helpful in preventing urine infections. Steer clear of over hyped natural remedies or marketing gimmicks Avoid scented feminine products. Skip deodorant sprays, scented powders, and other products with chemicals. The use of such products can irritate your genital parts, and make them prone to getting infections. You might also come across on the Internet a plethora of natural remedies like washing private parts with apple cider vinegar, etc. Please consult an expert before trying anything bizarre as it might be tricky to decode everything you should know about any such home remedy (how much to use, how long to apply, how frequently to use, etc.). Sip on cranberry juice As per some researchers, cranberry juice can help fight urine infections to a little extent. Studies report that the active biochemical compounds in cranberry juice prevent bacteria from developing into infections in the urinary tract. However, please note that cranberry juice cannot be considered as a treatment or cure for urine infections. Taste is another concern that prevents women from using cranberry juice in urine infections. We talked to an experienced gynecologist, who suggests if you dislike cranberry taste, having vitamin C-rich juices might also help. The best approach will still be to eat whole fruits and have plenty of water.