back-arrow-image Search Health Packages, Tests & More


Prevention Healthcare

Demystifying ADHD: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment



In a world filled with diverse cognitive profiles, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) stands out as a unique neurological condition with far-reaching implications. As we delve into the intricate web of ADHD, this article unfolds the global prevalence of the disorder, shedding light on the most current ADHD treatments and scientific insights.

Unravelling the mysteries surrounding ADHD, we will explore its challenges and the potential advantages it might offer. So, brace yourself for a journey through the scientific landscape, where we navigate the complexities of ADHD, examining its impact, treatment trends and the fascinating nuances that make it a subject of concern and curiosity.

What is ADHD?

ADHD is a neurodevelopmental condition characterised by challenges in maintaining focus, excessive movement, and impulsive behaviour. ADHD is a result of differences in brain development and function, leading to executive dysfunction.

People with ADHD may struggle with tasks that require sustained attention, like reading or writing, and find it difficult to sit still. Essentially, individuals with ADHD may find it challenging to regulate attention and behaviour. In simple terms, individuals with ADHD often face difficulties in staying attentive, controlling their impulses, and managing hyperactivity. It affects both children and adults, impacting daily activities and social interactions.

How Common is ADHD?

The prevalence of ADHD varies globally. In India, research suggests a prevalence ranging from 3% to 12%, while worldwide estimates hover around 3%.

A groundbreaking review of ADHD, involving over 21 million people worldwide, revealed ADHD rates in adults, contributing to approximately 2.6% of the global adult population. These findings underscore the global impact of ADHD, emphasising the need for awareness, diagnosis and effective management strategies.

Types of ADHD

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is typically categorised into three main types, each characterised by specific patterns of symptoms:

  • Inattentive Type ADHD, formerly known as ADD, primarily manifests as a persistent challenge in sustaining focus. Individuals with this subtype often find themselves easily distracted, making it difficult to maintain attention on tasks.

Unlike other ADHD types, this variant does not include hyperactivity, resulting in a less noticeable presentation. Everyday activities pose particular difficulties, as organising and completing tasks efficiently become challenging. The symptoms may include forgetfulness, trouble focusing on details, and a tendency to become bored quickly.

  • Hyperactive-Impulsive Type ADHD is marked by heightened levels of hyperactivity and impulsive behaviour, distinct from significant inattention. Individuals with this subtype often struggle with maintaining stillness, frequently engaging in excessive movement or fidgeting.

Impulsivity manifests as acting without careful consideration, leading to challenges like interrupting others and making hasty decisions. Waiting, in turn, becomes problematic, reflecting impatience. These individuals may find it challenging to adhere to social norms and exhibit restlessness.

  • Combined Type ADHD is characterised by a blend of inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms. Individuals with this subtype face difficulty concentrating and struggling to focus on tasks. Moreover, organisational difficulties may hinder daily activities.

Hyperactivity manifests as restlessness and excessive movement, while impulsive actions result in hasty decision-making and interrupting others. This amalgamation of symptoms makes it the most common ADHD subtype, impacting various aspects of daily life, including work and relationships.


ADHD and ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) are terms used to describe a spectrum of attention-related challenges.

  • Diagnosis Status: ADD and ADHD were once considered distinct diagnoses. However, ADD is no longer diagnosed independently; it is now referred to as inattentive ADHD.
  • Symptoms: ADHD encompasses two main types: inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive. Inattentive ADHD is what was previously known as ADD, characterised by limited attention span and forgetfulness.
  • Official Classification: According to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), ADD and ADHD are now considered subtypes of the same condition, eliminating the distinct classification. DSM-5 is a comprehensive classification and diagnostic tool for mental health disorders.

What are the Primary Symptoms of ADHD?

ADHD is a neurodevelopmental condition characterised by persistent patterns of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. While the manifestation of symptoms can vary, the core features encompass difficulties in several key areas.

  • Inattention: Individuals with ADHD often struggle with sustained attention and focus. Common symptoms include frequent careless mistakes, trouble organising tasks, forgetfulness in daily activities and a tendency to become easily distracted by unrelated stimuli. In academic or work settings, this may lead to challenges in completing assignments, following instructions, or meeting deadlines.
  • Hyperactivity: Hyperactivity manifests as excessive fidgeting, restlessness and difficulty remaining seated. In children, ADHD can be observed as constant movement, running or climbing in inappropriate situations and an inability to engage in quiet activities. In adults, hyperactivity may present as inner restlessness, a constant need for activity, or a sense of being 'on the go' all the time.
  • Impulsivity: Impulsivity involves making hasty decisions without considering the consequences. Individuals with ADHD may struggle to wait their turn, blurt out answers before a question is completed, or interrupt others in conversations.
  • Executive Function Challenges: ADHD often involves difficulties with executive functions, which are higher-order cognitive processes responsible for tasks. For instance, planning, organising, initiating and completing tasks and regulating emotions.
  • Emotional Dysregulation: Emotional dysregulation is a common aspect of ADHD, involving intense and fluctuating emotions. Individuals may experience mood swings, frustration and impatience. This emotional variability can impact relationships, social interactions and overall well-being.
  • Impairment in Daily Functioning: The symptoms of ADHD can significantly impact daily functioning across various settings, including academic, occupational and social environments. Challenges in time management, organisation and interpersonal relationships can contribute to a lower quality of life for individuals with ADHD.
  • Developmental Variations: ADHD symptoms can manifest differently across developmental stages. For instance, hyperactivity may be more prominent in childhood but may decrease in adolescence or adulthood.

What Causes ADHD?

The exact cause of ADHD is complex and multifactorial.

  • Genetic factors play a significant role, as ADHD tends to run in families. Research suggests that specific genes related to neurotransmitter regulation, particularly dopamine and norepinephrine, may contribute to the development of ADHD.
  • Environmental factors also cause ADHD. Factors such as prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke, alcohol, or drugs, premature birth, low birth weight and lead exposure have been linked to an increased risk of developing ADHD.
  • Central Nervous System Issues: Problems with the central nervous system, especially during critical developmental periods, are considered potential contributors to ADHD.
  • Maternal stress during pregnancy and early exposure to environmental toxins can also impact brain development and contribute to ADHD symptoms.
  • Factors like disruptions in early childhood development, exposure to high levels of stress and a lack of consistent and supportive environments may cause ADHD or contribute to the manifestation of ADHD symptoms.

What are the Complications of ADHD?

Untreated ADHD can lead to various complications, including academic underachievement, relationship challenges and occupational difficulties. Individuals may struggle with organisation, time management and maintaining focus, impacting daily functioning. Coexisting conditions such as depression and anxiety can exacerbate challenges. Therefore, early ADHD diagnosis and comprehensive management of ADHD are crucial to minimise these complications.

How to Get Diagnosed with ADHD?

Getting diagnosed with ADHD involves a thorough assessment conducted by healthcare professionals. The diagnostic process often involves collaboration between healthcare professionals, educators and family members to understand the individual's functioning comprehensively.

Here is the diagnostic process that typically includes the following steps:

  • Clinical Evaluation: A healthcare provider, often a psychiatrist, paediatrician, or neurologist, conducts a comprehensive clinical evaluation. This involves gathering information from multiple sources, including the individual, parents (for ADHD in children), teachers and any relevant medical records.
  • Diagnostic Criteria: The diagnosis is based on specific criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The individual must exhibit persistent inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity patterns that significantly impact daily functioning.
  • Rule Out Other Conditions: To ensure an accurate diagnosis, healthcare professionals rule out other medical or psychiatric conditions like Bipolar Disorder or Sensory Processing Disorder that may mimic ADHD symptoms. This involves a medical, paediatric, or neurodevelopmental screening and a psychiatric evaluation for co-occurring disorders.
  • Use of Assessment Tools: Healthcare providers may use standardised ADHD  assessment tools like questionnaires and rating scales to gather information about ADHD symptoms across different settings. These tools help quantify the severity and pervasiveness of symptoms.
  • Observational and Behavioural Assessments: Observations of the individual's behaviour in various settings, such as school or work, provide valuable insights. Behavioural assessments help evaluate attention, impulse control and hyperactivity.

Do I have ADHD?

If you suspect ADHD, self-assessment tools like the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and ADHD Questionnaire can provide initial insights. However, a professional evaluation is crucial for an accurate diagnosis. So, consult a healthcare provider or specialist to discuss your concerns and undergo a comprehensive ADHD assessment.

How is ADHD Treated?

ADHD is commonly managed through a comprehensive and individualised approach that may include a combination of behavioural interventions, psychoeducation and, in some cases, medication.

  • Behavioural Therapy: Behavioural interventions aim to improve specific behaviours associated with ADHD. Techniques may include behaviour modification, reinforcement strategies and social skills training. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT) can help individuals develop coping strategies and improve executive functions.
  • Psychoeducation: Education about ADHD is essential for individuals, families and educators. Understanding the condition's nature, challenges, and effective management strategies enhances support and cooperation in various settings.
  • Medication: Stimulant medications, such as methylphenidate and amphetamines, are often prescribed to manage ADHD symptoms. These medications for ADHD enhance neurotransmitter activity in the brain, improving focus and impulse control. Non-stimulant medications like atomoxetine may be considered, especially when stimulants are not well-tolerated.
  • Lifestyle Modifications: Establishing a structured routine, maintaining a healthy diet, ensuring regular exercise and prioritising sufficient sleep can positively impact ADHD symptoms. These lifestyle modifications contribute to overall well-being and can complement other ADHD treatment modalities.
  • Supportive Services: Accessing support services, such as special education accommodations, can benefit individuals with ADHD. These services may include extended time on tests, preferential seating, or the provision of written instructions.
  • Alternative Therapies: Some individuals benefit from alternative therapies like mindfulness, yoga, or neurofeedback. While research on the efficacy of these approaches varies, they may be considered as part of a holistic ADHD treatment plan.

Can ADHD be Prevented?

ADHD prevention is challenging with no definitive ADHD treatment, but strategies focus on reducing risk factors.

Early identification and intervention for potential developmental issues in children may mitigate ADHD symptoms. While no guaranteed prevention exists, fostering a supportive environment and promoting early-life well-being contributes to better outcomes. Regular monitoring and prompt intervention play a role in managing ADHD risk factors. Moreover, avoiding alcohol and drugs supports healthy fetal development during pregnancy.

Is ADHD a Lifelong Condition?

ADHD often persists throughout life, with studies revealing that a substantial number of individuals continue to exhibit symptoms into adulthood.

Around age 27, about one-third of those diagnosed in childhood meet adult ADHD criteria. While there can be variations in how symptoms manifest and affect functioning, ADHD tends to persist, and effective management strategies are essential for long-term well-being.

How can Parents Support a Child with ADHD?

Parents can play a crucial role in supporting a child with ADHD by implementing various strategies that address their unique needs. Here are some effective ways of ADHD management:

  • Structured Routine: A consistent daily routine helps children with ADHD feel more secure and organised. Clearly defined schedules for meals, homework, and bedtime contribute to a stable environment for a child with ADHD.
  • Clear Communication: Maintain clear and concise communication. Use simple language and provide step-by-step instructions to help the child understand expectations. Positive reinforcement for good behaviour reinforces a sense of accomplishment in ADHD management.
  • Break Tasks into Manageable Steps: Breaking tasks into smaller, manageable steps assists children in focusing and completing activities. This approach reduces feelings of overwhelm and promotes a sense of achievement.
  • Encourage Regular Physical Activity: Physical activity benefits children with ADHD as it helps burn excess energy and improve focus. Encourage activities like sports, which provide structured outlets for energy release.
  • Collaborate with Educators: Maintain open communication with teachers to ensure a collaborative approach to the child's education. Share insights into the child's strengths and challenges and work together to implement strategies that support learning.
  • Provide Emotional Support: Children with ADHD may face challenges in managing emotions. Offer emotional support, teach coping strategies and foster a positive self-image. Celebrate achievements, no matter how small, to boost confidence.

Are There Advantages to Having ADHD?

ADHD, despite its challenges, offers advantages like hyperfocus, creativity, and heightened energy. For instance, hyperfocus enhances productivity through intense concentration on tasks. Creative thinking, on the other hand, thrives on unconventional patterns, and individuals may excel in dynamic environments. Recognising these benefits is crucial, as their impact varies based on individual factors and effective management.


Despite distinct hurdles, this journey underscores potential advantages for those with ADHD. Embracing ADHD's cognitive tapestry fosters empathy and innovation. Moreover, navigating neurological diversity emphasises the crucial role of understanding and support. After all, every mind, whether neurotypical or neurodivergent, contributes uniquely to the human experience. Metropolis Healthcare recognises the importance of understanding neurological conditions. Therefore, we offer precise diagnostic services, including convenient blood testing by qualified technicians. Trust Metropolis for comprehensive pathology services, providing valuable insights into your well-being. Explore our services at Metropolis Healthcare to prioritise your health journey.

Talk to our health advisor

Book Now


Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Popular Tests

Choose from our frequently booked blood tests

TruHealth Packages

View More

Choose from our wide range of TruHealth Package and Health Checkups

View More

Do you have any queries?