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What are the Risk Factors of Cancer?

Cancer has many risk factors, some of them are non-modifiable like genetic factors. However, some lifestyle habits also contribute towards increasing the risk, which can be controlled. Some of them are

  • Poor hygiene

  • Alcohol abuse

  • Malnutrition

  • Physical inactivity

  • Smoking and chewing tobacco

  • Obesity

Types of Cancer

There are about 200 types of cancer, and all of them could be fatal if the required measures aren’t taken. Some of these are:

A cancer that forms in the cells of the breasts.


  • Hereditary
  • Obesity
  • Late menopause
  • Late pregnancy


  • Hard lumps in breasts
  • Change in size of breasts
  • Nipple discharge

This cancer is the most serious type of skin cancer and occurs when the pigment-producing cells that give colour to the skin become cancerous.


  • Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun and from tanning lamps


  • A change in an existing mole
  • The development of a new pigmented or unusual-looking growth on your skin
  • Bigger mole formation
  • Darkening of the skin
  • Skin mole with irregular border

A cancer that begins in the lungs and most often occurs in people who smoke.


  • Pre-existing persistent COPD
  • Smoking
  • Occupational hazards and Pollutants


  • Pain in chest or ribs
  • Chronic coughing with blood or with phlegm
  • Shortness of breath
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue

A cancer of the lymphatic system that affects the ability to fight diseases. It includes the lymph nodes, spleen, thymus gland and bone marrow.


  • Developing certain infections of Epstein-Barr virus and Helicobacter pylori infection.
  • Having an impaired immune system.


  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Night sweats
  • Sudden weight loss

A sarcoma is a rare kind of cancer. Sarcomas grow in connective tissue, cells that connect or support other kinds of tissue in your body. It could affect any part of the body. This leads to formation of lumps or abnormal growth of mass.


  • Exposure to industrial chemicals and herbicides.)
  • Exposure to viruses called human herpes virus 8)
  • Chronic swelling (lymphedema)


  • A new lump on the body
  • Abdominal pain
  • Blood in your stool or vomit
  • Black stools

Gastric Adenocarcinoma, also known as Stomach cancer, is a growth of cancerous cells within the lining of the stomach.

While stomach cancer is relatively rare compared to other types of cancer, diagnosing it is a difficult task. Stomach cancer usually doesn’t cause any early symptoms as it often goes undiagnosed until after it spreads to other parts of the body. This makes it more difficult to treat.


  • Helicobacter Pylori infections
  • Long standing pernicious anemia
  • Infection in the gut area or gastritis


  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Frequent heartburn
  • Loss of appetite
  • Constant bloating
  • Bloody stools
  • Excessive fatigue
  • Stomach pain after meals

A cancer in a man's prostate, a small walnut-sized gland that produces seminal fluid.


  • Genetic disorders
  • Increased risk with age


  • Pain in bones
  • Difficulty starting and maintaining a steady stream of urine
  • Excessive urination at night
  • Weak urinary stream

A cancer of the colon or rectum located at the digestive tract's lower end.


  • Inherited syndromes that increase colon cancer risk
  • Inflammatory intestinal conditions
  • Low-fiber, high-fat diet


  • Pain in the abdomen
  • Blood in stool
  • Anaemia or Fatigue
  • Weight loss

Leukemia is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and can happen when there is a problem with the production of blood cells. It usually affects the white blood cells.


  • Genetic disorders
  • Exposure to certain chemicals, such as benzene
  • Smoking


  • Pain in bones or joints
  • Dizziness, Fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Frequent infections
  • Nosebleed
  • Weakness

This cancer type starts in the cell that make up the skin or tissue lining organs, such as liver or kidney.


  • Chronic infection with HBV or HCV
  • Cirrhosis
  • Exposure to aflatoxins


  • Lower back pain
  • Fatigue
  • Lasting fever
  • Weight loss

This cancer type starts in the cell that make up the skin or tissue lining organs, such as liver or kidney.


  • Chewing Tobacco and smoking
  • Exposure to HPV
  • Alcohol abuse


  • Mouth ulcers or sores that do not heal
  • A lump or thickening of the skin or lining of the mouth
  • Pain when swallowing
  • Jaw pain or stiffness
  • Sore throat
  • Sensation that something is stuck in the throat
  • Painful tongue
  • Hoarse voice

Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix — the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. Various strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, play a role in causing most cervical cancer.


  • HPV infection
  • Multiple sexual contact
  • Hereditary


  • Post menopausal bleeding
  • Unusual vaginal discharge or abnormal bleeding between periods
  • Irregular menstruation or spotting

Get 30% off on cancer screening profiles

Test Code Test Name Patient Fees Reported On Test Details Other Details
C0022 Cancer Screening profile, Male 7500 After 8 hrs Cancer Marker Profiles Liver (AFP), Epithelial (CEA), Pancreas (CA19.9), Breast(CA15.3), Thyroid (Calcitonin, thyroglobulin), Prostate (PSA, fPSA), CBC for leukemia
Test Code Test Name Patient Fees Reported On Test Details Other Details
C0021 Cancer Screening profile, Female 9250 5th day Cancer Marker Profiles Liver (AFP), Epithelial (CEA), Ovary (HCG,CA125), Pancreas (CA19.9), Breast(CA15.3), Thyroid (Calcitonin, thyroglobulin), Cervical cancer (PAP Smear Reflex HPV-DNA), CBC for leukemia
C0267 Cervical Cancer Screening profile 3 5500 7th day Profiles for cervical cancer screening LBC Pap, HPV-DNA by HC2 reflex genotyping, p16INK4a, Ki67. Positive cases will undergo genotyping assay & p16INK4a & Ki67
C0084 Cervical Cancer Screening profile 2 3300 5th day Profiles for cervical cancer screening LBC Pap & HPV-DNA by HC2 reflex genotyping. Positive HPV cases will undergo genotyping assay
C0083 Cervical Cancer Screening profile 1 2900 5th day Profiles for cervical cancer screening Conventional Pap & HPV-DNA by HC2 reflex genotyping. Positive HPV cases will undergo genotyping assay

Why Metropolis?

Metropolis Healthcare offers a comprehensive range of 4000+ clinical laboratory tests and profiles, which are used for prediction, early detection, diagnostic screening, confirmation and/or monitoring of the disease.

With a team of 200 senior pathologists and over 2000 technicians, we deliver diagnostic solutions in the areas of routine, semi-specialty and super specialty domains like Oncology, Neurology, Gynaecology, Nephrology and many more.

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