Preventive Healthcare

Typhidot Test: Procedure, Preparation and Price Range

Overview: Typhidot Test

The Typhidot test is a rapid serological test that assists medical professionals in diagnosing typhoid fever. A bacterium called Salmonella Typhi causes this fever. When this bacterium enters your body, your immune system releases two types of antibodies, IgG and IgM, to fight against the bacteria. Typhidot test is a ready-to-use dot ELISA kit designed for qualitative detection and differentiation of these antibodies separately against the outer membrane protein (OMP) of the Salmonella Typhi bacterium.

Typhoid is one of the most prevalent diseases in Indian settings. The fever spreads through contaminated food, drinks, and drinking water. It is a life-threatening illness that needs rapid diagnosis to ensure appropriate treatment of potential carriers and prevent Typhoid outbreaks. 

Most of the detection methods fail to show accurate results. To confirm the presence of the bacteria, many patients are required to undergo ELISAs (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) and other blood cultures several times. Another diagnostic measure is bone marrow culture. But, it is too invasive and cannot be performed in a laboratory setting. In this respect, the typhidot test has proved to be an extremely valuable diagnostic tool. 

What is the Typhidot test used for?

Doctors routinely order a Typhidot test to evaluate people who exhibit the following symptoms:

  • Fever with body pain, especially in the head and legs
  • Increased weakness and sleepiness
  • Gradual increase in body temperature
  • Bloating sensation 
  • Stomach pain
  • Diarrhea 
  • Loss of appetite
  • Cough
  • Slow pulse rate in comparison to increasing body temperature
  • Gastroenteritis (inflammation of intestines) 
  • The appearance of small red boils or rash on the back or in the abdominal area after a week of fever
  • Malaise (a feeling of discomfort, weakness, loss of interest in any activities)

In some extreme cases, typhoid fever may also be accompanied by:

  • Abnormal heart rate
  • Excessive sweating 
  • Intestinal hemorrhage 
  • Enlarged liver and spleen
  • Distended abdomen (abnormally swollen abdomen)

When should you contact a doctor?

Get in touch with a doctor if you have any of the following:

  • Have visited an area where people are suffering from typhoid fever, and you have developed the symptoms 
  • Have been exposed to a person who has typhoid fever
  • Have symptoms like reduced urine output, severe abdominal pain, and any other new symptoms
  • Have suffered a recurrence of typhoid fever symptoms

What happens if typhoid fever is left undiagnosed?

Complete recovery from typhoid fever depends greatly on timely detection with the Typhidot test and accurate treatment. Delay in the same can lead to serious health complications. They can be:

  • Kidney failure: Typhoid fever can cause acute renal failure and hepatitis, although these conditions are rare. 
  • Internal bleeding: If typhoid fever is not treated with appropriate antibiotics, it can cause internal bleeding. If the condition worsens, the patient may require a blood transfusion.
  • Peritonitis: It is a very serious complication in which the bacteria infects your peritoneum (lining of your abdomen).

How do you prepare for a Typhidot IgM test?

There are no specific precautions or preparatory steps before this test. But remember to inform the doctor about any medications or health supplements that you take regularly. You may be asked to stop the intake for a few days before the test. Further, if you have any underlying medical condition, inform the doctor and the lab technician. Also, you do not need to fast before a Typhidot test

What is the procedure of the Typhidot test?

A Typhidot IgM test is conducted in the following steps:

  • An elastic band or tourniquet is tied firmly to your upper arm.
  • You are asked to make a tight fist. As a result, the veins fill with blood, making it easier to collect the blood.
  • Once the vein is located, the spot is cleaned using an antiseptic liquid. It stops any bacteria from entering your body.
  • The needle is inserted into the vein, and the blood sample is collected in a vacutainer tube. 
  • The lab technician takes out the needle and releases the elastic band. You can then open your fist.
  • A gauze pad or cotton is used to stop the bleeding.
  • After this, the blood sample is placed on the Typhidot test kit and combined with the chemicals or reagents provided with the test kit. 
  • The test kit shows results within 1-3 hours.

Things to consider after a Typhidot test is complete

After the Typhidot test is completed, the needle is taken out gently. The needle insertion site is covered with cotton to stop the bleeding, and a bandage is applied. Initially, you may feel some pain, but it subsides in a few days. 

There are no post-test restrictions associated with aTyphidot IgM test. You can resume your routine activities, eat, drink and move around. However, after receiving your test results, you must schedule an appointment with a doctor to discuss and understand if there are any concerns. 

What precautions should be taken when collecting samples for Typhidot tests?

Some precautions must be kept in mind while handling the test kit and the blood sample. They are:  

  • The test device must be kept sealed until used. It must be stored at 4–30°C.
  • It must be kept safe from heat, moisture, and sunlight.
  • All standard measures must be followed during sample collection.
  • All the samples or specimens must be handled with extreme care as they are potentially infectious.
  • If the sample cannot be tested immediately, it must be refrigerated at 2–8°C.
  • If the storage period is longer than three days, the specimens must be stored at –20°C.

How much does a Typhidot test cost?

The Typhidot test price may differ from city to city. Let us look at the average Typhidot test price in a few major cities:

  • Mumbai — ₹581
  • Delhi — ₹447
  • Pune — ₹662
  • Hyderabad — ₹588
  • Kolkata — ₹602
  • Lucknow — ₹490
  • Gurugram — ₹422
  • Srinagar — ₹385
  • Surat — ₹535
  • Chennai — ₹419

The price of the Typhidot IgM test can vary depending on the lab partner, location, and timing. 

When should you expect the results of the Typhidot test?

The turn-around time of the Typhidot IgM test is one of the key features. You can expect the results within a few hours. Then, the results are compared to the range or readings provided with the kit. 

How do you interpret the results of the Typhidot IgM test?

The Typhidot IgM test is an enzyme immunoassay used to detect the IgM and IgG antibodies produced by your body’s immune system against the Salmonella Typhi bacteria with a 50 kilodaltons outer membrane protein. The test isolates the IgG and IgM antibodies with the help of nitrocellulose strips infused with the OMP antigen.

Negative results on the test kit indicate the absence of infection. However, Typhidot IgM positive means or points towards a recent infection. Also, if your test results show IgG positive, it indicates a past or chronic infection. For an accurate understanding of the test results, you must visit a doctor. After analyzing the results, the doctor can prescribe a proper course of treatment. 

What are the advantages of the Typhidot test?

The Typhidot IgM test offers several advantages, which make it very convenient for clinical use:

  • Provides early and specific diagnosis of typhoid fever
  • Easy to conduct
  • Rapid and reliable 
  • Only a blood sample is required; no other specimen is needed
  • The test does not require any special equipment or apparatus
  • The quantity of blood samples needed is minimal
  • Test results are easy to interpret
  • Typhidot test price is affordable

Is the Typhidot test definitive and reliable?

Most doctors and healthcare consultants generally use the Typhidot test in the diagnosis of typhoid. They find it an easy-to-use, quick, and a promising option for the timely diagnosis of this health condition. Further, it is safe for all age groups. 

Are there any risks associated with the Typhidot test?

A blood sample has very little risk associated with it. In some people, locating veins and arteries can be a challenge, due to which taking blood samples can be difficult. Apart from this, the below-mentioned may occur:

  • Hematoma (accumulation of blood under your skin)
  • Swelling in the particular vein from where the blood sample was taken
  • Excessive bleeding
  • Fainting or lightheadedness
  • Infection at the needle insertion site

Before the test, remember to inform the lab technician if you suffer from any bleeding disorder, take any blood-thinning medications, or have fainted during a blood test in the past. It is important to note that the above issues occur very rarely and generally resolve themselves. Overall, the Typhidot test has no significant risks.

In case of dizziness after a blood test, what should you do?

In case you feel dizzy or nauseated, drink plenty of fluids and take sufficient rest. Avoid intense workouts for the next 2-3 days, and do not lift heavy objects. Ensure that a family member or friend is there to look after you. If the dizziness continues, contact your doctor without any delay.

Are there any limitations to the Typhidot IgM test?

The most significant limitation of the Typhidot IgM test is that it is not quantitative, which means the results show either positive or negative. 

Quick tips to stay protected from typhoid fever

  • Washing your hands frequently with soap and water is the best way to keep typhoid infection at bay.
  • Be extremely cautious in the matter of drinking water. If possible, boil it before consuming it.
  • Avoid raw milk. Drink only boiled milk.
  • Preferably eat food that is hot and fresh.
  • Avoid food items that are stored and served at room temperature.
  • Do not eat food from street vendors.
  • It is better to eat cooked food. Keep the number of raw fruits and vegetables in your diet low. 
  • Get vaccinated.

Conclusion 

Typhoid is widely recognized as a grave health concern in our country. Further, with the emergence of new strains of bacteria, this health condition can be significantly damaging. Hence, the importance of early diagnosis is undeniable. Typhidot IgM is an advanced diagnostic tool to detect the disease accurately and treat it promptly.

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