Hematuria (Blood in Urine): Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
Blood in urine (Hematuria) can be a concerning symptom that requires medical attention. While it can be caused by harmless factors like vigorous exercise or infections, it can also indicate more serious underlying conditions such as urinary tract infections or kidney disease.
So it is important not to ignore hematuria and consult a healthcare provider for proper evaluation and diagnosis. Research estimates that at least one in every person consulting a urologist is diagnosed with the problem of blood in the urine. Timely medical intervention can help individuals identify the cause of blood in urine and get the appropriate treatment.
Thus, understanding Hematuria's symptoms, causes and treatment methods would greatly help.
Blood in urine (Hematuria) refers to the presence of blood cells in the urine because of some underlying medical condition. It is classified into gross, microscopic and dipstick hematuria based on an individual's condition. Gross hematuria is when blood is visible to the naked eye, resulting in red or pink colour urine. Microscopic hematuria is referred to the condition wherein the blood in urine is visible only through a microscope.
Lastly, dipstick hematuria is identified through a colour change on a urine test strip. Blood in urine can be linked to various conditions and is determined through urinalysis during routine medical examinations. Individuals must seek medical attention if blood is detected in the urine to prevent further complications of any underlying issue.
Symptoms of Hematuria
Hematuria is primarily characterised by the presence of blood in urine with a varying appearance from slightly pinkish to bright red colour. Additional symptoms may include the following:
- Frequent urination
- Pain or discomfort during urination
- Lower abdominal pain or discomfort
- Pain on the sides of the back
- Fevers or chills (in case of urinary tract infections)
- Fatigue or weakness
- Blood clots in urine
In some cases, blood in urine may not be painful, but the passage of blood clots can cause certain discomfort. Moreover, some individuals might not face symptoms except blood in the urine. Early detection and intervention are essential for identifying and addressing any potential underlying health problems associated with Hematuria.
Causes of Blood in the Urine
Various factors, including infections, injury, kidney stones, etc, can cause blood in urine. The following are the common causes of hematuria:
Hematuria can occur due to urinary tract infection (UTI) in different parts of the urinary system, like the bladder, kidney, urethra or prostate. UTI can cause inflammation and bleeding in the urinary tract, resulting in a strong urge to pee and burning pain while peeing.
Injury to the urinary tract caused by accidents, sports-related activities, hard exercises or any recent urinary tract procedures can lead to Hematuria. An injury to the kidneys as a result of an accident can also cause blood in the urine.
- Stones in the Urinary Tract
The presence of kidney stones, bladder stones or ureteral stones can also be a cause of hematuria. These stones are formed by the minerals present in urine and can become hard over time resulting in blockage, pain and blood in the urine.
- Medical conditions of the urinary tract
Certain urinary tract conditions like cystitis (inflamed bladder), benign prostate hypertrophy (enlarged prostate), endometriosis and renal diseases can cause Hematuria. Kidney diseases like glomerulonephritis can also be part of this condition.
- Genetic disorders
Inherited disorders like sickle cell disease and haemophilia affect red blood cells and blood clotting, sometimes resulting in blood in the urine. Moreover, conditions like Alport syndrome damage small blood vessels in the kidneys and can also result in Hematuria.
Blood in urine can also be associated with the presence of cancer cells resulting from bladder, kidney, urethral and prostate cancer. Cancer-related bleeding is mostly visible only through microscopic examination.
Other Factors That Can Cause Hematuria
- Viral illness – like hepatitis
- Recent catheterisation
- Certain medications – like penicillin and aspirin
Diagnosis of Hematuria
Diagnosis involves several tests and examinations to determine the cause of blood in the urine. It includes the following processes:
- Physical exams
- Urine tests – urinalysis and urine culture
- Blood tests
- Urine cytology
- Image tests – CT scans and MRIs
- Kidney biopsy
- Ultrasound tests
These tests will help healthcare professionals assess the presence of blood, check for urinary tract infections, examine the bladder and kidneys and identify any abnormalities or diseases. Repeat testing might also be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.
Treatment Options for Hematuria
The treatment for Hematuria is based on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Some of the common treatment options for this medical condition are the following:
- Antibiotic Medicines
Antibiotics are prescribed to eliminate urinary tract infections that cause Hematuria and reduce inflammation. These medicines will kill the bacteria causing the infection to prevent bleeding.
- Treatment for Kidney or Bladder Stones
Lifestyle changes, medications or surgical intervention may be recommended for curing kidney or bladder stones causing blood in the urine. Usually, sound waves treatment will be used to break up these stones and prevent Hematuria.
- Medications and Treatments for Other Conditions
Medication and treatments for other conditions include using alpha-blockers and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors for enlarged prostate, a wide range of treatments for different levels and stages of cancer, disease-modifying agents and pain modifications for sickle cell disease, diuretics and blood pressure-lowering drugs for kidney disease, etc.
In some cases, no treatment may be required for hematuria if there is no serious underlying medical condition. Regular monitoring of the condition might be recommended for individuals with microscopic hematuria and no identifiable cause.
Blood in urine can be a distressing symptom that requires appropriate evaluation and treatment to address the underlying condition effectively. By identifying the underlying cause and choosing the right treatment approach, healthcare providers can help individuals maintain optimal urinary tract health.
Metropolis Healthcare, a leading diagnostic lab in India, specialises in blood testing and health check-ups. Visit your nearest Metropolis Healthcare Centre to receive accurate reports for conditions such as hematuria. They have achieved a good reputation in this field with qualified technicians and at-home blood sample collection facilities.
Some advantages of choosing Metropolis Healthcare for hematuria testing include the following:
- Experienced and qualified blood collection technicians specialised in handling accurate diagnoses.
- Comprehensive test menu covering a wide range of blood tests related to hematuria and urinary tract health.
- Timely delivery of test reports through email and the Metropolis TruHealth app.
- Easy access to test reports and online storage for convenient record keeping.
- Do not ignore blood in urine and seek medical evaluation.
- Remember to follow your healthcare professional's guidance and treatment plan.
- Do not hesitate to seek support and ask questions about your conditions.
- Choose Metropolis for quick and easy diagnosis test results.