The troponin test detects the presence of the proteins troponin “I” and troponin “T” in your blood. Heart attacks can cause tissue injuries that result in the leaking of troponin into the bloodstream, which can be detected through troponin tests.

Troponin Serum Test: Its Significance in Diagnosis and Treatment of Heart Attack

Troponins are proteins necessary for the cardiac and skeletal muscles to contract. Under normal circumstances, troponin is present inside the muscle cells. When there is damage to these muscle cells, the troponin inside them leaks into the bloodstream. Thus, the presence of troponin in the blood indicates muscle injury.

There are three kinds of troponin: troponin C, troponin I, and troponin T. Troponin I is present only in the cardiac muscle. Troponin T is also present in other muscles but in very small quantities, and also, its structure is unique in cardiac muscles. Thus, troponin I and troponin T are used as cardiac markers to detect a heart attack because the heart muscles sustain the maximum damage during a heart attack.

Continue reading to learn more about this critical protein, its tests, and other things you need to know about testing for troponin.

What Should You Know About the Troponin Test?

The severity of a heart attack can be evaluated by measuring the amount of troponin leaking into the blood, which rises as the risk becomes higher. The higher the level of troponin, the more severe the injury.

With the advent of technology, it is now possible to detect elevated levels of troponin through troponin tests. High levels of troponins are seen in patients with a higher risk of heart attacks. This, in turn, helps doctors determine whether or not a patient has had a heart attack. This test can help narrow down the cause when other diagnostic methods have failed.

Other names given to the test are cardiac troponin test or cTnI, cTn, or cTnT. Your doctor can recommend either or all of these tests to detect troponin levels in your system and check for potential heart injuries.

Why Do You Need a Troponin Serum Test?

A troponin I and T-test are typically performed if your doctor suspects you are suffering from a heart attack. Your doctor will order a cardiac troponin test to rule out or confirm a heart attack if you exhibit symptoms such as:

  • Chest discomfort or pain.
  • Pain in your arm, back, jaw, or neck in addition to other body areas.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Nausea.
  • Diarrhoea.
  • Fatigue.
  • Dizziness.
  • Sweating.

They might also request an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) and other blood tests for a definitive diagnosis.

What Does a Troponin Serum Test Mean?

Doctors check your cardiac troponin levels to determine if you are having a heart attack. Additionally, a troponin test gives quick results, which can help doctors make a prompt diagnosis and provide timely treatment to the patient, which can be life-saving.

Clinicians previously utilised other blood tests such as the CPK isoenzyme test to identify heart attacks. But because they are not sensitive enough to pick up every attack, they are not always the best test. These blood tests reveal nothing about smaller heart attacks. Additionally, the other tests measure chemicals that are not sufficiently precise for the heart muscle.

Troponin has greater sensitivity and the levels rise within 3 hrs of heart attack . Doctors can more accurately identify a heart attack or other heart-related illnesses and start treating patients right away by measuring cardiac troponin levels in the blood.

After cardiac muscle damage, there are two forms of troponin that are easier to detect; they can be distinguished by the letters I and T.

Troponin I (cTnI): only the heart muscle produces this type of troponin.

Troponin T (cTnT): Other muscle types do contain some troponin T, but the levels are very small. Additionally, the troponin T in your heart muscle has a unique structure that is different from the troponin T of other muscles.

How Is the Troponin I Serum Test Performed?

To perform this test, a sample of your blood is drawn, examined, and tested for troponin. Doctors can detect the presence of heart injury if the troponin level is high enough.

A heart attack can be accurately diagnosed using this test in conjunction with other diagnostic procedures such as an electrocardiogram and electrical tracing of the heart.

The troponin test should not be repeated within 9 days of the first positive test and its level becomes normal post this period. In case one has symptoms of a second episode of heart attack within 9 days of the first then CK-MB test is recommended.

With the advancement in laboratory sciences and infrastructure, modern and highly-sensitivity troponin tests have developed. These tests can detect elevated troponin levels as early as 9 minutes after a heart attack. This early detection turns out to be lifesaving in many cases and has revolutionised the treatment of heart attacks.

What Is The Typical Range For Troponin?

Traditional blood tests are typically unable to detect troponin levels because they are so low. In the case of an increase in troponin levels, albeit slight, this can indicate cardiac injury.

Rapid volatility of troponin levels (sharp peaks and troughs) for hours is a serious indication of a cardiac injury.

A cardiac issue is generally indicated by a result of between 0.04 and 0.39 ng/ml. However, a tiny subset of the population with elevated troponin levels is otherwise healthy.

If the value is within this range, more investigation, such as a thorough history and physical, may be warranted.

When going for a troponin test, one of the best centres you should consider is Metropolis. It is backed by a team of 200 senior pathologists and a comprehensive range of 4000+ clinical laboratory tests to help you diagnose diseases early on before they become fatal.

If Your Levels Of Troponin have Increased, What Course Of Action Should You Take?

Rather than treating high troponin levels, which isn’t precisely a diagnosis but a symptom, your doctor will focus on treating the issue from the root.

For instance, high troponin levels indicate that an individual has recently suffered a heart attack. In the case of a heart attack, the treatment options are different depending on whether or not the blood flow has been blocked completely.

Some remedies or treatments suggested by doctors for those who have suffered from a heart attack include:

· Medication to dissolve various blood clots.

· Angioplasty is a procedure where a catheter inserts a tiny balloon into the coronary artery to unblock it.

· Bypass surgery, in which the surgeon creates a new path for blood to pass through the heart.

· Ablation is a procedure wherein the surgeon uses radio waves to eliminate specific harmful heart cells.

To maintain a healthy heart, your doctor will advise you to adjust your lifestyle, eliminate harmful social habits like smoking and drinking, and adopt a healthy lifestyle that involves exercising and following a nutritious diet plan.

There are a variety of treatments to help solve rising levels of troponin I caused by various reasons. There is no “One Size Fits All” solution, and the line of treatment varies from patient to patient.

You can now avail troponin testing from the comfort of your home. Book your troponin tests today with Metropolis India and keep your troponin levels in check.

What’s The Procedure to Conduct a Troponin I Test?

The procedure for Troponin testing is relatively simple and quick and only takes about 10 minutes. All that is required is a tiny blood sample from your vein with a rapid test kit. The test is conducted at least six to twelve hours after the onset of cardiac-like symptoms.

The Troponin I card test is the most accurate Troponin I test available, with an accuracy level of 96.8%. The primary purpose of this test is to determine if your Troponin I levels have shot up.

Do You Need Any Preparation Before Undergoing a Troponin Test?

In most cases, you cannot do any preparation for this test because, more often than not, heart attacks come all of a sudden and are unpredictable. In the event you need to undergo a troponin test, it is recommended that you inform your doctor if you take a Vitamin B7 (commonly known as biotin) supplement as it may affect the result of this test.

How to Interpret the Troponin Test Results?

The normal range (expected level) of troponin in the blood of a healthy person is undetectable or very low and is mentioned in laboratory reports. Elevated serum troponin levels indicate that your cardiac muscle cells are injured and are leaking troponin into the bloodstream.

Although a spike in troponin levels is commonly associated with a heart attack, many other medical conditions harm the heart muscles and can cause raised troponin levels. These include:

  • Endocarditis
  • Myocarditis
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Pericarditis
  • Stable Angina
  • Heart failure
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythm)
  • Cardiac valve dysfunction
  • Sepsis


The troponin test is an invaluable tool for early detection of a heart attack. Although this test has been around for a while, improvements in technology have substantially improved its precision, accuracy, and detection time. With all these advancements, this test has become one of the most effective techniques for the timely diagnosis and treatment of a heart attack.


What Can Raise Troponin Levels?

Troponin levels can rise due to cardiac injury, which may be due to a speedy heartbeat, blood clots in the lung artery, inflamed heart muscles due to a virus, over-exercising, prolonged kidney disease, etc. Surgical procedures like angioplasty and open heart surgery can raise troponin levels.

Do Troponin Levels Return to Normal?

Blood troponin levels rise about 2 to 3 hours after the onset of chest pain. After that, the levels will rise steadily until they reach their maximum 12 to 48 hours later. Within 4–10 days, the troponin level will return to normal.

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Cholesterol Levels

What is Cholesterol?

Cholesterol is a wax-like substance found in our body cells. 80% of the cholesterol is made by the liver, with only 20% coming from the food you consume. Most people relate cholesterol with diseases and health conditions, whereas in reality, its effects are not always negative. 

While excessive cholesterol can clog your arteries and cause a heart attack, it also has its uses. Surprising as it may sound, cholesterol causes the production of hormones like oestrogen, testosterone, vitamin D, and bile acids. Furthermore, it acts as a vital building block in the cell membranes. 

Due to being fat and waxy, cholesterol can’t move through the bloodstream on its own. Instead, tiny protein molecules called lipoproteins help transport cholesterol in the body. 

The lipids travelling through the bloodstream come in various forms like chylomicrons, VLDL, IDL, LDL, and HDL. Out of them, LDL or Low-Density Lipoprotein is the one that attracts maximum attention. Mostly referred to as bad cholesterol, it is the primary reason behind plaquing and clogged arteries. On the other hand, HDL or High-Density Lipoprotein is known as good cholesterol because it eliminates the excessive LDL in the body by carrying it to the liver. 

How to Determine the Cholesterol Levels in Your Body?

Lipid profile or lipid panel is a cholesterol test that measures cholesterol levels in your body. It is a blood test that determines the following: 

  • Total cholesterol – The total amount of cholesterol, including LDL and HDL
  • LDL – Also known as the bad cholesterol in your blood.
  • HDL – Known as the  good cholesterol in your blood.
  • Triglycerides – A type of non-cholesterol fat found in the body. 
  • Non-HDL – Total cholesterol minus HDL 

The levels are measured in mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) and presented in a numeric form.

Markers for Different Levels of Cholesterol – Normal, Borderline, and Very high 

Cholesterol normal range for most adults

Total cholesterol Less than 200 mg/dL
LDLLess than 100 mg/dL
HDL40-60 mg/dL
TriglyceridesLess than 150 mg/dL
Non-HDL More than 130 mg/dL

The above table shows the normal range of cholesterol for normal healthy adults. Now, it is time to know about the borderline and high cholesterol range. 

Cholesterol Borderline Numbers for Most Adults

As the name suggests, it refers to marginally high Cholesterol levels. If you have a history of heart diseases or are at risk of developing one, your doctor will suggest and formulate a treatment plan.

Total cholesterol 200-239
Triglycerides 150-199

Cholesterol Very High Levels for Most Adults

Total cholesterol 240 or more
LDL190 or more 
Triglycerides 500 or more 

HDL results 

Below 45Not good
45-60 Normal 
60 and above Very good 

As per The National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III Reporting guidelines. 

Why Should You Worry About High cholesterol Levels?

High cholesterol in your blood indicates heightened risk of developing cardiovascular diseases like heart attack and heart failure. Excessively high cholesterol can plaque the walls of the arteries and block them. This, in turn, affects the blood and oxygen carried to your heart, thus increasing the risk of a stroke or heart attack. Besides these, high Cholesterol level can have the following impacts: 

  • Brain strokesAngina
  • Gallstones
  • Peripheral arterial disease
  • Numbness in joints and legs
  • Loss of memory 

What Are Symptoms of High Cholesterol?

Typically, high cholesterol symptoms are hard to detect as they do not create any noticeable symptoms to start with. It creates complications as the level increases.. For example, excessive cholesterol can induce heart attacks and strokes.

Typically, these events do not occur until excessive cholesterol causes the production of arterial plaque. Plaque can restrict arteries, decreasing blood flow. Plaque development alters the composition of the arterial lining. This might result in significant difficulties.

Only a blood test can determine whether your cholesterol is high. The normal levels are determined as per the National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III Reporting guidelines. High cholesterol  indicates a total cholesterol level in the blood that is greater than 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). After the age of 20, it is advisable to get cholesterol tests done. Then, your cholesterol levels should be rechecked every four to six years. If you have a family history of high cholesterol, your doctor may also recommend more frequent cholesterol screenings.

When and How Often Should You Take a Cholesterol Test?

  • Doctors recommend testing cholesterol at the age of 10. 
  • Young adults who are 20 and above should undergo tests every five years.
  • Adults 45 and above should get the tests done every two years. 

Lipid profile tests and Cardiac Risk  Profiles are often recommended regularly to test the overall cholesterol and lipid levels.

Who is at High Risk of Cholesterol?

The following triggers can cause potentially high levels of cholesterol.

How is a Cholesterol Test done?

The tests are conducted in the mornings because you will need to fast for about 9 hours before the test. The physician or lab technician will leave detailed instructions the day before. 

The technician will take a blood sample by inserting a needle in the vein of your arms. The whole test takes only about a couple of minutes. 

What Distinguishes Healthy Cholesterol From Harmful Cholesterol?

The term for good cholesterol is high-density lipoprotein (HDL). It eliminates cholesterol from circulation. The ‘bad’ cholesterol is low-density lipoprotein (LDL).

If you have a high total cholesterol level due to a high LDL level, you may be at an increased risk for heart disease or stroke. However, if your total cholesterol level is elevated only due to a high HDL level, you are not likely at an increased risk.

Triglycerides are an additional form of blood fat. When you consume more calories than your body can utilize, the excess calories are converted into triglycerides.

Diet and activity changes can improve cholesterol readings, reduce LDL and triglycerides, and increase HDL.

Your optimal cholesterol level depends on your cardiovascular disease risk.

What are the normal ranges for cholesterol LDL?

Ideally, the total cholesterol level should be less than 200 mg/dL, depending on HDL and LDL levels.

LDL cholesterol levels – less than 130 is optimal, however, this varies based on heart disease risk.

HDL cholesterol levels of 60 or above minimize the risk of cardiovascular disease.

The optimal level of triglycerides is fewer than 150 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL).

How to Manage Cholesterol?

  • Include more vegetables, fruits, and whole grains in your diet. 
  • Avoid foods with high-salt content 
  • Limit foods like cakes, butter, Ghee, biscuits, fatty red meat, etc, that contain saturated fats. 
  • Maintain a healthy weight. 
  • Drink alcohol in moderation.
  • Exercise regularly and be physically active. 
  • Avoid stress. 
  • Avoid smoking. 
  • Take the medications prescribed by your doctor. 
  • Have your cholesterol checked every year if you are in the high-risk group and every five years if you don’t have any risk factors. 

There are often no symptoms of high cholesterol, leading the medical community to term it a silent killer. A blood test is the only way to determine cholesterol levels in your body. So, even if you are healthy, it would be advisable to go through routine examinations. However, prevention is always better than cure. If you are a smoker, have blood pressure and uncontrolled diabetes, your risk of developing cholesterol is higher. To keep cholesterol at bay, start practising a healthy lifestyle. Diet is one of the best ways to keep your cholesterol under check. Hence, watch what you eat on a regular basis. Most importantly, curb your alcohol intake and work towards getting a healthy weight. A little cautiousness on your part can go a long way in giving you a better chance at a healthy and fruitful life.

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Lung cancer is the second most common cancer. Early identification of cancer improves patient outcomes. However, most patients with lung cancer are unaware they have the disease until it has spread to other organs in the body.

People at high risk of lung cancer have to undergo screening procedures like medical imaging scans, which have inherent risks. Therefore, researchers focus on developing blood tests to identify lung cancer before the disease is symptomatic. This article will explore different tests to detect cancer and how blood tests can be beneficial in lung cancer detection.

What is Lung Cancer?

Cancer is developed by uncontrollable cell growth. Cancer that forms in the tissues of the lungs is known as lung cancer. It may spread to the brain or lymph nodes. Other cancers may also reach the lungs. Metastases are cancer cells that spread to other organs.

The two common types of lung cancer are small cell and non-small cell lung cancer. These types of lung cancer have distinct growth patterns and have different treatments. Small-cell lung cancer is less common.

What Tests Detect Lung Cancer?

If you suspect lung cancer, your doctor may perform a series of tests to check for cancerous cells and rule out other conditions.

Lung Cancer Detection Using Image Processing

Imaging tests provide images of the inside of your body using X-rays, sound waves, magnetic fields, or radioactive chemicals. Doctors may perform Imaging tests before and after a lung cancer diagnosis. These tests help to check the following:

  • To assess treatment efficiency
  • To look for cancer recurrence after treatment
  • To determine the spread of cancer
  • To check for cancerous growths in suspicious areas

Chest X-ray

In most cases, your doctor will begin by conducting a chest X-ray to search for any abnormalities in the lung. If anything appears suspicious, your doctor may prescribe more tests.

Computed Tomography (CT) Scan

CT scan provides cross-sectional body pictures on a computer using X-rays. It detects lung cancers more often than chest X-rays. It may also detect enlarged lymph nodes and lung tumours with cancer. This test can also screen for adrenal gland, liver, brain, and other organ masses caused by the spread of lung cancer.

CT-Guided Needle Biopsy

Doctors may use a CT scan to guide a biopsy needle to get a tissue sample if a suspected cancerous location is deep in your body.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scan

The images of the body’s soft tissues produced by MRI scans are incredibly detailed. MRI scans use powerful radio and magnetic waves rather than X-rays. When lung cancer has reached the brain or spinal cord, doctors use MRI scans to detect it.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan

Doctors inject radioactive tracers into the blood for a PET scan. They collect in the areas where the tissues are damaged and represent as bright spots.


PET and CT scans are sometimes combined using a specific machine that can conduct both at the same time. It enables the doctor to compare more radioactive regions on the PET scan with a more detailed CT scan. For lung cancer patients, it’s the most common PET scan.

Bone Scan

In a bone scan, doctors inject low-level radioactive material into the blood and collect in abnormal bone. Doctors can use a bone scan to determine if cancer has migrated to the bone. This test isn’t compulsory as PET scans indicate if cancer has migrated to the bones.

Sputum Cytology

It is possible to detect lung cancer cells in sputum by looking at it under the microscope when you have a cough.


A biopsy includes collecting a sample of abnormal cells. A lighted tube is inserted down your neck and into your lungs during bronchoscopy, a procedure your doctor can use to take a sample.

Another option is mediastinoscopy, which involves creating a tiny incision at the base of the neck and inserting medical equipment under the breastbone to get tissue samples from your lymph nodes.

Your doctor may conduct a needle biopsy by inserting a needle through your chest wall and into your lung tissue to collect abnormal cells using X-ray or CT scan pictures. Doctors may get a biopsy sample from your liver, lymph nodes, or other places where cancer has spread.

Lab analysis of cancer cells will identify the type of lung cancer. A sophisticated test for lung cancer detection reveals specific properties of the cells and helps determine your prognosis and plan your treatment.

Metropolis Healthcare limited offers a complete diagnostic profile for helping the patients which includes immunohistochemistry for biomarkers i.e., PDL1, ALK and a wide range of tumour panels to detect specific mutations in patients through next generation sequencing and digital droplet PCR (e.g., cell free DNA for EGFR). 

Can Blood Tests Identify Lung Cancer?

Researchers are looking into biomarkers in your blood as a potential early-detection tool for lung cancer. If you have a biomarker, doctors can objectively monitor your health. In the case of lung cancer, cancer cells release abnormal DNA, antibodies, and proteins, which doctors may use for lung cancer screening. Detection of EGFR mutation detection through blood is offered at Metropolis Healthcare limited; this test is used to type the cancer once it has been detected.


Blood based tests which detect cell free tumour DNA are being used for biomarker testing. Research is ongoing and future will see them being used in diagnosis

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PCOS or polycystic ovary syndrome is a leading cause of infertility among women. Although PCOS does not stop women from having babies, conceiving becomes difficult due to this condition. Here is all you need to know about PCOS and pregnancy to enhance your chances of conceiving and having a healthy pregnancy if you have PCOS.

What Exactly is PCOS?

Ovulation occurs when ovarian follicles release an egg. PCOS is a hormonal problem that makes ovulation difficult. Women with PCOS generate more testosterone than usual, which may inhibit ovulation and result in irregular or absent periods. Due to the hormonal imbalance, follicles don’t release eggs, which remain as cysts in the ovaries, resulting in polycystic ovary syndrome.

Symptoms of PCOS?

  • Acne.
  • Excessive face hair growth.
  • Scalp hair thinning.
  • Excess weight gain.
  • Abnormally long-lasting menstrual bleeding.
  • Menstruation irregularity.

Insulin resistance develops in more than half the women with PCOS before 40. If your periods are irregular or you suddenly develop any of the symptoms listed above, you should see your doctor.

The medical practitioner will consider your family history and whether you’ve had them before. It is possible to have PCOD/PCOS without ovarian cysts; therefore, the doctor will perform blood tests, a pelvic exam, and an ultrasound to confirm their doubts.

How to Detect Pregnancy if You Have PCOS?

When you have PCOS, it is easy to mistake the symptoms for that of pregnancy. Missed periods – the classic initial pregnancy symptom may become hard to spot if you have PCOS. Irregularities in menstrual cycles make it difficult to recognise when you have missed a period unless you track your ovulation.

Women generally get their period approximately two weeks after ovulation. So, if you are sure that you did ovulate but didn’t get your periods within 14 days, the chances of you being pregnant are high; for best results, ask your doctor to monitor your ovulation cycle.

Additionally, in PCOS, doctors often prescribe metformin, a drug that induces ovulation. Such medicines often mimic pregnancy symptoms, like vomiting and nausea. They may even cause a metallic taste in your mouth, another early pregnancy symptom.

If you are getting treated with Progesterone, you might experience sore breasts, tiredness, mood swings and appetite changes; all these are classic pregnancy symptoms.

Women with PCOS should avoid using early result pregnancy tests, since these tests often produce false negatives.

To clarify your doubts, the medical practitioner may ask you to undergo a PCOS profile test that assesses the levels of various hormones within your body. So, book your PCOS Profile – 3 test today!.

What are the Chances of Pregnancy in PCOS?

You may require medication to become pregnant with PCOS. According to a medical study, nearly 80% of women with PCOS who took the drug clomiphene citrate succeeded in ovulating. Half of these women got pregnant in six-period cycles.

If medications fail, your doctor may prescribe IVF treatments. Pregnancy rates for women with PCOS who undergo IVF range from 20% to 40%. Getting pregnant becomes more difficult for women over 35 who are also overweight.

Risks associated with getting Pregnant with PCOS?


Pregnant women are more vulnerable to developing this type of diabetes. It is treatable and, when kept under control, presents no significant health risks to either the mother or the foetus. After the baby is born, the condition usually goes away on its own; however, Gestational diabetes may result in very big babies with low blood sugar and breathing difficulties. It also raises the chance for women and their children to acquire type 2 diabetes in the future.


Preeclampsia, a rapid increase in blood pressure, may harm the mother’s brain, kidneys, and liver after the twentieth week of pregnancy. Moreover, it can progress into eclampsia if not treated in time, leading to seizures and even death. Delivery, even if premature, is the main treatment for the condition. Women with preeclampsia may need a C-section, which includes risks for both mother and child.

Pregnancy-Induced High Blood Pressure

This condition is caused by a rise in blood pressure levels in the second half of pregnancy. It may even cause preeclampsia if untreated. This high blood pressure might potentially impact the delivery.

Preterm Birth

Infants are “preterm” if born before 37 weeks of pregnancy. Preterm babies are at risk for major health issues after delivery and later in life.


PCOS pregnant women may require caesarean sections because of high blood pressure. AC-section is a surgical procedure, which may prolong the recovery time for both mother and baby.


Women with PCOS are three time more likely to have a miscarriage in the first few months of pregnancy than women without the condition. According to research, metformin may help pregnant women with PCOS avoid miscarriage.


PCOS can make pregnancy more difficult due to the lack of a reliable menstrual cycle to anchor your timeline. However, this doesn’t rule out pregnancy in the future.

After the expected start of your period has passed, keep testing to see if you have a positive result. You can have a greater chance of obtaining an accurate result if you do not depend on early pre-period testing methods, which can be inaccurate for women with PCOS.

Always use a blood test that a doctor has prescribed to confirm pregnancy. Throughout your pregnancy, see a gynaecologist who is familiar with PCOS.

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Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a type of blood cancer that starts in the bone marrow or the soft, internal section of a bone. As a vital part of the skeletal system, the bone marrow or soft tissue within the bones produces three types of blood cells: platelets, white blood cells, and red blood cells.

White blood cells help the body fight infections, but in people with AML, these white blood cells fail to grow properly and subsequently transform into cancer cells called myeloid blasts. These then move from the bone marrow into the bloodstream, affecting various other body parts.

If acute myeloid leukaemia symptoms are left untreated, the cancer can spread to the brain, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, skin, and cerebral spinal fluid.

Symptoms of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

There are different stages of acute myeloid leukaemia:

  • M0: Undifferentiated AML
  • M1: AML that is less mature
  • M2: AML that is more mature
  • M3: APL or acute promyelocytic leukaemia
  • M4 EOS: Acute myelomonocytic leukaemia with eosinophilia
  • M5: Acute monocytic leukaemia
  • M6: Acute erythroid leukaemia
  • M7: Acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia

In its early stages, the signs of acute myeloid leukaemia can be the same as flu, and you might suffer from fatigue and fever. Other common symptoms of AML include:

  • Frequent nosebleeds
  • Bone pain
  • Easy bruising
  • Swollen and bleeding gums
  • Shortness of breath
  • Excessive sweating, especially at night
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Heavier than normal periods in women
  • Headaches
  • Dizziness
  • Weakness
  • Feeling cold all the time
  • Joint pain
  • Vomiting

Schedule an acute leukaemia panel or a bone marrow test today to ensure you can prevent or diagnose, manage and treat acute myeloid leukaemia.

Causes of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

The main cause of acute myeloid leukaemia is DNA mutations in the bone marrow’s stem cells. These mutations cause the stem cells to produce more white blood cells. Since these cells are immature, they do not have infection-fighting capabilities. As they keep increasing in number, the platelets and red blood cells decrease in number, resulting in the onset of acute myeloid leukaemia.

Doctors do not know what triggers the genetic stem cell mutations and why certain people suffer from this condition. But certain factors might increase your risk of developing this condition. These risk factors include the following:

  • Being exposed to radiation of a considerable level can increase your risk of developing AML. But this usually requires exposure at the highest levels. As such, people who have undertaken radiotherapy as part of previous cancer treatment have higher chances of contacting AML.
  • Exposure to chemicals like benzene can also increase your chances of getting AML. Benzene is commonly found in the rubber industry, petrol, and cigarette smoke, so doctors recommend quitting smoking to avoid developing AML.
  • The ingestion of certain chemotherapy medicines for an earlier, unrelated cancer can also increase your chances of developing AML, even after several years have passed since the treatment. These medicines include mitoxantrone, melphalan, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin.
  • Individuals suffering from blood disorders like myelofibrosis, myelodysplasia, and polycythemia vera are at an increased risk of developing AML.
  • Genetic conditions like Fanconi’s anaemia, Down’s syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and neurofibromatosis type 1 can also increase a person’s chances of developing acute myeloid leukaemia.
  • Genetic predispositions can also cause AML.

Treatment for Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

The treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia depends on factors such as the age of the patient, the subtype of the condition, the overall health of the patient, and their preferences. There are two phases of general treatment available for the condition. These are:

Remission Induction Therapy

The first phase of treatment is remission induction therapy, where the objective is to kill leukaemia cells within the blood and bone marrow. However, this generally does not wipe out all of the leukaemia cells; therefore, further treatment is needed to prevent a relapse occurring.

Consolidation Therapy

In consolidation therapy, also known as post-remission therapy or maintenance therapy, the objective is to destroy the remaining leukaemia cells, so the condition does not return.

 There are different treatments used in these treatment phases, including:

  • Chemotherapy: It is one of the most important types of remission induction therapy, where doctors use chemicals to kill cancer cells in the body. Chemotherapy can also be used in consolidation therapy for AML treatment. Patients must stay in the hospital during chemotherapy because the treatment destroys normal blood cells as well as the leukaemia cells. The chemotherapy can be repeated if it does not cause remission.
  • Targeted therapy: This acute myeloid leukaemia treatment focuses on certain abnormalities in the cancer cells. Targeted therapy involves using drugs to block these abnormalities, causing the death of the cancer cells. A doctor might test a patient’s leukaemia cells to find out if targeted therapy might be helpful for them. This therapy can either be used alone or in combination with chemotherapy.
  • Bone marrow transplant: This process is also called a stem cell transplant and is used for consolidation therapy. It helps re-establish a colony of healthy stem cells by replacing unhealthy bone marrow with stem cells to regenerate healthy bone marrow. Before a bone marrow transplant, high doses of radiation therapy or chemotherapy are used to destroy the leukaemia-producing bone marrow. Next, the patient receives stem cell infusions from a compatible donor. A patient can even use their own stem cells for a transplant if they have had healthy stem cells harvested before the cancer began.
  • Clinical trials: These include different types of experimental treatments and combinations of known therapies that AML patients enrol in.
  • Alternative medicine: There are no alternative treatments available for AML, but certain complementary solutions can relieve the signs of this condition, such as massage, acupuncture, meditation, exercise, and relaxation activities, like tai chi and yoga.

Bottom Line

Approximately 2 out of 3 patients suffering from AML go into remission following chemotherapy. Remission means the patient does not exhibit any symptoms of the disease anymore. Patients who have yet to achieve remission fall in the acute myeloid leukaemia ICD 10 class,a medical classification for patients who have not yet achieved remission. In such patients, there are detectable cancer cells in the bone marrow, and the normal healthy cells cannot grow properly.

Visit a doctor today to schedule an acute leukaemia panel or a bone marrow test to ensure you can prevent or diagnose, manage and treat acute myeloid leukaemia.

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The condition of PCOD is a lifestyle disease commonly seen among women today. While its exact causes are unknown, some common issues triggering PCOD include poor lifestyle, stress, obesity and other associated disorders.. With early diagnosis and preventive steps such as weight loss and PCOD specific diet , you can reduce the risk of long-term health complications related to heart and type 2 diabetes.

Symptoms of PCOD?

Recognising the early signs and symptoms of PCOD can help you keep the disorder in control. You must understand that not all symptoms and signs of PCOD are similar for every woman. Despite varying from one person to the other, they are treatable with a good PCOD Diet Plan and exercise.

For many, PCOD starts at puberty when their first menstrual period hits. As for many others, PCOD may develop due to a poor lifestyle resulting in weight gain.

For a better understanding of this common lifestyle disease, let us check the symptoms. If you experience two or more of these symptoms, consult a medical practitioner:

1. Irregular Periods

This is one of the most common symptoms of PCOD. The irregularities in one’s menstrual cycle can range from two months to 7 months and even more in some cases. The menstrual disturbances caused by PCOD can also result in abnormally heavy periods, lasting for days.

2. Excess Levels of Androgen

An increase in male hormone levels called androgen is another factor that causes PCOD. One of the early signs of androgen-induced-PCOS is sudden growth in facial and body hair. Also known as hirsutism, this condition causes unwanted hair growth in the chin area, abdomen, back, upper arms and legs and around the breast area. Severe acne and male-pattern baldness are other signs of hirsutism.

3. Polycystic Ovaries

In PCOD, the ovaries tend to enlarge as several small-sized fluid-filled sacs start growing inside them. Also known as follicles, these sacs contain immature eggs that cannot ovulate. These cysts further alter the progesterone, oestrogen, FSH and LH levels, causing androgen to rise.

How Can a PCOD Diet Chart Help?

By following a PCOD Diet Chart, you can start to control the symptoms of PCOD and maintain a healthy life. The diet charts usually recommend the consumption of green and leafy vegetables, along with foods that help supply the body with enough nutrients.

When making a PCOD Diet chart , ensure to include foods rich in nutrients such as calcium, iron, protein, potassium, magnesium and multiple vitamins, including vitamin B. 

Two primary ways that diet impacts PCOD are insulin production and resistance and weight management. It is important to note that Insulin plays a vital role in PCOD.  Therefore, following a diet to manage insulin levels is one of the best steps to managing the condition.

For best results, follow a diet that meets your nutritional requirements, keeps excess weight under check and promotes good insulin levels.

Foods to Include in Your PCOD Diet Chart Plan

Let us check out foods that are a definite yes to control the symptoms of PCOD:

1. Fruits

Your PCOD Diet Plan should definitely include fruits daily. You may add fruits like red grapes, cherries, blueberries, blackberries, strawberries and apples to your diet. These fruits are low in glycaemic index (GI), helpful for insulin sensitivity.

2. Vegetables

Green leafy vegetables, including kale, broccoli and spinach, are excellent additions to a PCOD Diet Chart. They can also prove beneficial in improving blood circulation and skin health.

3. High-fibre

Fibre-rich foods such as beans, avocados, nuts, peas and oranges help keep PCOS symptoms under control and should be a part of the PCOD Diet Chart.

4. Nuts

Many nuts such as walnuts, almonds, pistachios and pine nuts are good sources of healthy fats that help to treat PCOD.

5. Fish

While you can include lean meats in your diet, a PCOD Diet Plan For Weight Loss must feature omega-rich and fatty fish such as salmon, sardines, mackerel and tuna.

Foods to Avoid in PCOD

As PCOD is a lifestyle disease, you must follow specific diet restrictions. It would be best to avoid packed and processed foods that are also harmful overall to the body.

1. Refined Carbs

It is best to avoid refined carbs such as pastries, bread, breakfast cereals, pizzas and anything containing white flour.

2. Sugary Beverages

A PCOD Diet Plan For Weight Loss is meaningless unless you put a stop to the consumption of all forms of sugary drinks like sodas, sports drinks, sweetened waters and more.

3. Processed Meats

If you wish to cure PCOD, forget processed meats that come in the form of sausages, salamis, hot dogs and more


To conclude, like every lifestyle disease, PCOD too can be controlled and cured with minute attention to diet and exercise. You may consult a doctor for efficient treatment who is qualified to suggest what PCOD Diet will suit you best. Besides guiding your diet, the doctor can suggest behavioural strategies from goal-setting to self-monitoring techniques to help you achieve your goals better and quicker.

As a preventive measure, it would help to take a PCOS profile – 3 Test without delay as soon as you notice any of the symptoms mentioned above.

Along with this doctors also recommend regular testing of sugar and cholesterol levels as these may also contribute to PCOD.

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Do you know that a pregnant woman requires approximately 300 extra calories per day to maintain a healthy pregnancy? Yes, that’s right! To gain these calories, one must follow the best diet for pregnant women, which includes whole grains, protein, fruits, and vegetables. Furthermore, sweets and unhealthy fats must be kept to a minimum.

We know how challenging it is to carve out a balanced and healthy daily diet for pregnant women. Therefore, we bring you a list of beneficial foods and beverages for an ideal Indian diet for pregnant women. This food list takes care of the nutritional needs of the baby and ensures the holistic health of the mother-to-be.

Diet for Pregnant Women: Pre-Breakfast Snack Ideas

  • Dry fruits (10 to 12 pieces)
  • One glass of cow milk (plain)
  • Banana milkshake
  • Almond milk
  • Carrot juice
  • Tomato juice
  • Apple juice

Breakfast Ideas

  • Bowl of fruit salad (including apricots, apples, dates, banana, sweet fig, and oranges)
  • Rava upma with vegetables
  • Vegetable poha with chillas
  • Oats with 2 boiled eggs
  • Vegetable omelette
  • Whole wheat toast, butter, and omelette
  • Stuffed parathas (with fillings of potatoes, dal, spinach, carrots, paneer, or beans) with curd
  • Cheese and vegetable sandwich
  • Cheese toast
  • Rice sevai with vegetables
  • Vegetable khandvi

Mid-Morning Snack Ideas

  • Chicken soup
  • Spinach soup
  • Tomato soup
  • Carrot and beetroot soup
  • Creamy spinach soup
  • Pumpkin (kaddu) soup
  • Banana milkshake

Diet for Pregnant Women: Lunch Ideas

  • Plain paratha with curd and a bowl of dal
  • Chapati with dal, curd, and a bowl of vegetable
  • Peas and carrot stuffed paratha made with butter and a bowl of curd
  • Vegetable khichdi
  • Curd rice
  • Rice and chicken curry
  • Green peas pulao or jeera pulao with raita
  • Rice, vegetables, and dal with a green salad
  • Rice, dal, vegetable raita with one fruit
  • Pea lemon rice with a green salad
  • Chicken salad with vegetable soup
  • Grilled chicken with curd
  • Rice with kofta curry
  • Paneer paratha made with butter and green salad
  • Stuffed paratha with sprouts salad

Evening Snack Ideas

  • Chicken cutlet
  • Bread cutlet
  • Chicken sandwich
  • Corn and cheese sandwich
  • Roasted peanuts
  • Dry fruits with dried dates
  • Milk porridge with sevai, oats, or daliya
  • Vegetable daliya
  • Tomato and spinach idli
  • Vegetable idli
  • Mixed-veg uttapam
  • Vegetable sevai
  • Carrot halwa
  • Lauki halwa
  • Fresh fruit smoothie (banana or strawberry)
  • A cup of green tea

Dinner Ideas

  • Chicken rice or vegetable pulao with a bowl of curd
  • Mixed dal khichdi, curd, vegetable curry
  • Rice, spinach veggie, dal, green salad
  • Plain paratha with curd (or buttermilk)
  • Roti, dal, vegetable of choice, curd (or buttermilk)

Diet for Pregnant Women: Foods and Beverages to Consume

Water: Drinking about 10 to 12 glasses of water is imperative during pregnancy. Adequate water helps the protective fluid (or amniotic fluid) around the foetus and boosts better digestion as well.

Dairy products: They are loaded with rich nutrients like vitamins and calcium that assist the baby’s development.

Leafy green vegetables and broccoli: Dark green vegetables like broccoli are a good source of folate, antioxidants, and vitamins, including A, B6, C, and K. They promote haemoglobin supply, healthy bones, and keep skin problems at bay.

Sweet potatoes: Sweet potatoes contain high levels of beta carotene (vitamin), which is vital for fetal growth and development.

Salmon: Regular consumption of salmon must be included in the Indian diet for pregnant women as it can boost docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), commonly known as an omega-3 fatty acid. The need for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) increases during the third semester of pregnancy.

Legumes: Enriched with plant-based nutrients like iron, protein, fibre, and calcium, legumes are a good source of plant-based nutrients that must be included in the daily diet of pregnant women.

Eggs: Eggs are amongst the best sources of protein. They boost amino acids and choline, among other beneficial vitamins and minerals.

Lean meat: A healthy diet for pregnant women must include good quality protein, which comes from lean meat. Lean meat has good amounts of iron, vitamin B, and essential minerals.

Berries: Berries help in increasing your water intake as they pack lots of water and nutrients like healthy carbohydrates, fibres, and vitamin C.

Dry fruits: A handful of dry fruits pack zinc, potassium, calcium, and fibre. They prevent constipation during pregnancy.

Whole grains: The growing foetus requires minerals and vitamin B for its development. Whole grains are fortified with folic acid and provide essential nutrients required by the baby.

Food and Beverages to Avoid During Pregnancy

Unwashed food: Unwashed fruits, vegetables, and especially meat can expose you to toxoplasma gondii (a harmful parasite), which can cause serious complications in pregnancy.

Caffeine: While chalking out the best diet for pregnant women, caffeine must always be kept out of the list! Caffeine is known to increase your blood pressure and heart rate, both of which are detrimental and risky in pregnancy.

Alcohol: Alcohol consumption can lead to structural defects in the baby. If a woman consumes alcohol in the first trimester, the chance of abnormal facial features in the baby rises.

Processed junk foods: Junk food cravings are real and happen to all women during pregnancy. However, you must always stay away from processed junk foods (like cookies, candies, pizza, burgers, and baked goodies made from white flour) as they can increase the toxic acrylamide levels in the mother’s body.

Unpasteurised foods: Unpasteurised foods, including fruit juice, milk, or cheese, may contain food-borne illnesses causing bacteria like E. coli, campylobacter jejuni, and listeria.

Raw sprouts: Raw sprouts are not among the ideal diet for pregnant women, and their consumption can make you sick. Raw sprouts grow in warm and humid conditions, an environment that is conducive for bacteria to flourish.

Raw or undercooked fish: Raw fish contain bacteria, parasites, and microorganisms, which exposes you to several illnesses.

Undercooked and processed meat: Undercooked meat that carries microorganisms can make you sick. Processed meat that contains listeria bacteria can cause vomiting and food poisoning among pregnant women.

Raw eggs: Raw eggs contain the bacteria called salmonella, and their consumption can lead to a host of health problems like food poisoning, diarrhoea, and vomiting.


Good eating habits in pregnancy have a long-lasting positive effect on your baby’s growth and development. A healthy diet for pregnant women also ensures a hassle-free pregnancy experience.

Based on these suggestions, a personalized diet chart can be formulated in consultation with your doctor and dietician.

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A food allergy is usually any unwanted symptomatic reaction to the food you consume. The reactions are usually immediate after the consumption of the allergen. However, all reactions cannot be termed as allergies, as such reactions and their symptoms can also be due to the intolerance of those foods to your physiology.

Every individual’s physiology differs remarkably from one another, and the allergies or intolerances vary accordingly. Not to say that all individuals do show such symptoms.

If your body suffers from signs and symptoms after having a food item, it is best to find out if it is a food allergy or food intolerance. It helps with a better understanding of how and what quantity of certain foods may be unhealthy for your physiology. Additionally, it also clears the path to choosing to treat the same.

Food intolerance is usually a delayed systemic response of the body’s systems, which may even occur a few days or weeks after the consumption of a particular food item.

To give you an idea and to start with understanding the differences between the two, you must observe the cause of such symptoms—if it is the repeated consumption of certain food items or your everyday food intake.

Let’s get further into the meanings and differences between food allergy and intolerance for a detailed understanding of the two physiological aspects.

The Causes and Symptoms of Food Allergies

Food allergy is a condition that often surfaces due to the body’s immune system not working optimally. If your body suffers from a food allergy, it is likely because your immune system identifies the particular food item as a harmful, invading, foreign object, thus leading to a fight response.

A hyperactive immune system thus results in several observable symptoms that you may find surfacing in and on the body. Often, an allergic reaction is due to the high release of histamines in the body, a chemical addressing a local immune response in the body. It is ideally a useful chemical enabling blood thinning for the WBCs to pass easily and reach the affected location, among other purposes.

However, in the case of food allergies, the immune system’s overactive state leads to a release of histamine and other responsive chemicals in high quantities to counter such food’s impact. Such a sudden release of these chemicals leads to severe responses, which are allergic symptoms.

A food causing allergy in one’s body is identified as an allergen. Common food products that turn out to be allergens for a remarkable number of people include peanuts, animal dander, pollen, seafood, among others.

Common symptoms related to a food allergy that one might come across include the likes of

  1. Itching in the body
  2. Breathing trouble due to constricted/inflamed lungs
  3. Excessive watery discharge from the eyes
  4. Swelling and congestion in the nose
  5. Diarrhoea and vomiting in severe cases
  6. Red rashes on the skin
  7. Pressure in the chest or pain
  8. Anaphylaxis in fatal conditions

The Causes and Symptoms of Food Intolerance

Unlike a food allergy, food intolerance is the body’s response to any uneasy or incompatible food, leading to indigestion or irritation of the digestive system. As a result, the body’s capacity to digest the food reduces, leading to signs and symptoms.

To understand food intolerance, you must know that it is not as sudden as an allergy and takes time to surface. Managing food intolerance is a slow process, too, needing you to eliminate certain food items from the diet. The doctor may also administer some light medications for any potentially harmful intolerance symptoms to subside.

Long-term plans for food exclusion are among the best ways to counter intolerance to certain food items in your day-to-day life. Common food items causing intolerance in the body include wheat, gluten, and milk, along with certain vegetables and fruits. You must have commonly heard of the term ‘lactose intolerance,’ which is the body’s intolerance to lactose present in milk and milk products, leading to gastrointestinal discomfort. Some common symptoms of food intolerance in your body include the following.

  1. Constipation, cramps, bloating, and similar symptoms in the stomach
  2. Redness or inflammation of the skin
  3. Acidity and heartburn
  4. Excessive dryness of the skin
  5. Acne and pimples
  6. Headaches
  7. Mood swings and irritability

Primary Points of Difference Between Food Allergy and Food Intolerance

Some common points of difference between a food allergy and food intolerance are listed below for a better understanding of the two conditions.

1. Biological systems impacted

The body’s immunity is the biological system that impacts/leads to allergic reactions to a certain food when in close contact. In the case of intolerance to food, chemicals produced in the digestive system are primarily responsible for the symptomatic reactions. Depending on the chemical composition of the body’s physiology, any healthy food consumed can cause intolerance symptoms.

2 .Causes

In the case of a food allergy, your body’s immune system tries to protect it from certain food items that it considers a threat to the overall health. An allergy can be very specific to individuals based on the allergenic behaviour of such food.

Apart from food consumption, even the smell or touch of certain food can cause allergic reactions in the body. Some other causes of food allergy include family history, age, maturity of the digestive system, and asthma.

The body’s Intolerance to food is, however, typically caused due to the body’s inability to process or digest certain food due to the lack of necessary chemicals or enzymes. The presence of specific chemicals in such food or the presence of food additives can also be intolerance triggers.

Irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, and sensitivity to dried fruits are identified as other reasons for intolerance to food.

3. Diagnosis

Food allergies are best diagnosed through dedicated blood tests, oral food tests, physical examinations of the skin, and tests based on food elimination. Additionally, the healthcare professional may inquire regarding your history of allergies, any family history of such conditions, etc.

The first and basic test is usually a blood test to detect the Immunoglobulin E levels. If the levels are abnormal, further allergy testing like Allergy panels may be needed.

There are now various tests available to detect food allergies like Allergy panel- Milk and milk products , Allergy panel- Fruits and other such tests. Apart from these basic blood tests like CBC, ESR may also be done to check certain abnormal parameters.

 Food intolerance is difficult to diagnose and most laboratories do not offer any test for it. Metropolis Healthcare Ltd. offers testing for food intolerance using protein array technology. Test has a comprehensive range and can detect IgG antibodies against 150 + foods.

4. Severity

A food allergy may or may not be severe depending on your body’s reaction to the allergen identified. However, in some cases, an allergen may lead to severe symptoms, such as diarrhoea, vomiting, asphyxiation, etc. Most of these symptoms appear shortly after coming in contact with such food, like in the following 2 hours. Comparatively, food intolerance leads to low severity symptoms, which often appear over 4-5 hours after food consumption.

5. Time taken for recovery

The recovery time from a food allergy often depends on the extent of exposure to such allergens and the severity of the symptoms observed. The higher the exposure and/or symptoms, the longer it takes to recover.

Under food intolerance, however, eliminating the identified food from your diet can lead to a muted response of the body to such intolerance, resulting in long-term recovery.

6. Treatment

Cases with mild symptoms of food allergy can be easily treated through antihistamine administration. Severe cases of allergy may need a more immediate, assertive, and aggressive response, such as hospitalisation or epinephrine injections. All these treatments must be done under the guidance of your doctor, though.

As per research reports, there does not exist any definitive cure for the treatment of intolerance to various food items. The best bet has been to eliminate intolerant food items from one’s diet.

Parting Thoughts

With this detailed insight regarding the differences between food allergy and food intolerance, you should be better able to distinguish between the two as per the symptoms, severity, food consumption, and such factors. You may watch out for either of them if you feel itchy, discomfort, rashes, or any such symptoms after consuming a specific food.

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Testosterone is mainly a male sex hormone that becomes highly active in males as they reach puberty and starts to dip after age 30. It plays a vital role in the development of the male reproductive organs, production of sperm, and the growth and maintenance of muscle mass, sperm count, and energy levels. It also regulates the sex drive in men. However, the ovaries of women and also the adrenal glands produce this hormone too, although in much lower amounts. The main female sex hormone is estrogen, responsible for the development of the female reproductive system, but it mixes with testosterone to support the overall well-being of a woman.

Low Testosterone Level in Women

The testosterone levels in a woman’s body keep changing throughout life. A small amount of this hormone can make a lot of difference in the quality of their life. Testosterone in the blood of a healthy adult woman ranges from 15 to 70 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dl). The levels of this hormone start to dip between the ages of 20 to 40. Unlike estrogen, which happens to dip abruptly during menopause, no sudden changes in the levels of testosterone can be noted during this phase. However, in some women, testosterone levels can fall below the normal limit post menopause, resulting in a decreased sex drive and other problems.

Lower than normal levels of testosterone in the body of a woman can cause one or several of the following symptoms:

  • Weak and brittle bones or osteoporosis
  • Weaker muscles
  • Fatigue
  • Obesity
  • Depression
  • Disturbed sleep
  • Reduced libido
  • Fertility problems
  • Irregularity in menstrual cycles
  • Vaginal dryness

There can be more symptoms related to low testosterone levels in women, and the research in this area is still in progress. This condition often remains undiagnosed in women and is mistaken for side effects of menopause. The levels of testosterone in the blood can be determined by means of a blood test.

Causes of Low Testosterone Levels in Women

The levels of testosterone don’t remain the same in women even throughout the day. It naturally decreases as you age, and by the time you reach the stage of menopause, you are likely to have much less testosterone in your bloodstream as your ovaries are no longer producing hormones like before. There are a few major causes of low testosterone in women, such as:

  • As a result of ageing and menopause, both of which are natural
  • If there are problems in the ovaries, pituitary glands or the adrenal glands
  • Due to the medication taken to combat the side effects of menopause
  • Oral oestrogen therapy

Treatment for Low Testosterone in Women

The best approach to treating low levels of testosterone in women is yet to be fully understood by scientists. Hormone replacement therapy is suggested for men in case of severe imbalance. However, there is limited data on whether it is equally effective and safe for women or not. It might have many side effects, even severe ones. However, you can make some simple improvements to your lifestyle in order to achieve this goal. These changes include:

  • Incorporating proper exercise and a healthy diet into your routine
  • Including calcium-rich foods in your diet for bone health
  • Getting enough sleep during the night
  • Getting therapies for reducing stress
  • Going for therapies to improve libido

High Levels of Testosterone in Women

Women with high testosterone levels may notice changes in their physical appearance as well as other health problems. There are many contributing factors to this condition. Higher levels of testosterone are usually found in women with:

  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: It is a condition found in women of childbearing age. It is characterised by numerous fluid-filled follicles on the ovary, which hampers its ability to release eggs regularly. To diagnose this condition various test profiles are available, for e.g., PCOS profile 1,2 & 3 which can be selected basis symptoms being experienced by the patient
  • Hypothyroidism: There happens to be a connection between hypothyroidism and high testosterone levels. Hypothyroidism can cause the production of sex hormone-binding globulin or SHBG to decrease, resulting in an upswing in free or bioavailable testosterone levels.
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: It refers to a group of rare genetic disorders and involves the adrenal glands. It can result in the excessive production of testosterone hormone.
  • Unhealthy lifestyle: Unhealthy lifestyle can cause major hormonal imbalances in the body, leading to a rise in testosterone levels.

Symptoms Indicating High Testosterone in Women

Some common symptoms of high testosterone in women are:

  • Severe acne, which is also known as hormonal acne
  • Excessive facial hair
  • Balding or receding hairline
  • Increase in the muscle mass
  • Irregular periods
  • Low sex drive
  • Frequent mood swings
  • Infertility
  • Obesity
  • Reduction in the breast size

Treatments for High Testosterone

As high levels of testosterone can have visible ramifications on your health and outlook, there are also treatments that one can opt for. It includes lifestyle changes and also medications. Some medications that are often used to control high testosterone are:

  • Oral contraceptives
  • Metformin
  • Glucocorticosteroids
  • Spironolactone


Balanced testosterone levels in women allow the body to function with better ease and support their reproductive health. The levels of testosterone in your bloodstream can be found with a testosterone profile test. You can consult your doctor or gynaecologist after a profile test in case of an anomaly and the course of treatment you should follow in order to correct it. Last but not least, a healthy and disciplined lifestyle is the best way to keep your hormone levels under control and ensure overall well-being.

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You may have heard about testosterone in different contexts, but there’s much more to it than casual conversations. It is a sex hormone that plays a vital role in males and the health and well-being of a person. You may be surprised to know that women also need this hormone for multiple reasons.

Let’s find out, in this article, what testosterone is and how it affects your health.

What is Testosterone?

Testosterone is a sex hormone primarily produced by the male testis and female ovaries, found in humans and animals. In men, it plays a crucial part in developing the reproductive organs during puberty. It also regulates muscle mass, red blood cell production in the male body, and fat distribution.

In females, the ovaries and adrenal glands produce testosterone in much lesser amounts. It combines with the female sex hormone estrogen to assist the growth, maintenance, and repair of female reproductive tissues and bone mass. It also influences a woman’s energy levels, moods, and libido.

How Testosterone Affects Male Health

When a male child reaches adolescence, testosterone production in their bodies rises and continues till the age of 30, after which it starts to diminish. During this period, it significantly contributes to the development of the body. The testosterone levels in the body can also influence a man’s mood.

The roles played by testosterone in men include:

  • The development of male reproductive organs.
  • The gradual voice change during adolescence.
  • Growth of facial and pubic hairs.
  • In later life, it might also lead to male pattern balding.
  • The growth and strength of muscles and bones.
  • Production of male reproductive gametes or sperms.
  • Regulates libido.
  • Sperm production.

Lower Testosterone Levels in Men

If testosterone levels are too low, it might affect the health adversely. You would notice some symptoms due to this, and your doctor might ask you to go for a test to check the testosterone levels in your bloodstream. The average testosterone levels in an adult male’s bloodstream range from  249 to 836  nanograms per deciliter (ng/dL). If the testosterone levels are lower than the normal limits or close to the lower limit, then you would require to determine the leading cause behind it.

Some causes can include the following.

  • The pituitary gland malfunctions, which sends signals to the testicles to produce the hormone.
  • Due to a chronic health condition, such as kidney disease, alcoholism, AIDS, or liver cirrhosis.
  • Treatments like chemotherapy or radiation can also affect the levels of testosterone.

Adult men with low levels of testosterone may experience the following symptoms:

  • Declining sex drive.
  • Low energy levels.
  • Drastic weight gain.
  • Depression.
  • Sudden mood swings.
  • Weak and thin bones.
  • Lessening of hair on the body.
  • Low self-confidence.

However, adolescents experiencing symptoms of low testosterone levels could be a sign of delayed puberty. Some symptoms may include less facial or pubic hair, delayed voice breaking/changing, and underdeveloped reproductive parts.

Higher Testosterone Levels in Men

Higher levels of testosterone mean increased activity of the main functions regulated by it. However, if you wonder whether it means increased strength or higher sex drive, it doesn’t quite work that way. Although a high testosterone level in men may lead to more muscle mass, it has many side effects.

When the levels of the male hormone in the body are abnormally high, it gives rise to the following symptoms,

  • Lower sperm count.
  • Damage in the heart muscle.
  • Enlarged prostate.
  • Insomnia.
  • Increase in muscle mass.
  • Frequent mood swings.
  • Overgrowth of body hair.
  • Acne.
  • Stunted growth.

One of the major causes of high testosterone levels can be attributed to Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT). It is a natural testosterone booster treatment to increase levels, usually suggested to those who experience deficient levels. This treatment is given only to people whose bodies do not produce adequate amounts, resulting in major developmental issues.

You can adopt specific lifestyle changes to maintain a healthy testosterone hormone balance in case of minor fluctuations.

Testosterone in Women

It’s no surprise that women require testosterone for the proper functioning of their bodies.

Women’s ovaries and adrenal glands also produce testosterone in smaller quantities than men. A proper balance between the female sex hormone estrogen and testosterone is essential for a woman’s physical and emotional well-being. Testosterone plays the following role in women, maintaining overall health.

  • It makes bones strong and healthy.
  • It improves the brain’s cognitive functions.
  • It regulates sex drive.
  • It maintains and restores reproductive tissues.
  • It supports menstrual health and fertility.
  • It supports breast health.

In a healthy adult female, testosterone levels remain between 15 and 70 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dL). If lower than the normal levels, the following symptoms can be noticed:

  • Fertility issues.
  • Lower sex drive.
  • Changes in the breast tissues.
  • Irregular menstrual cycles.
  • Weaker bones.

Whereas, if the levels are higher than normal, then you will notice the following signs: 


Testosterone is an essential hormone, even if incorrectly blamed for all unpleasant, unrefined aggressive, macho, angsty behaviourism. The term commonly thrown in when describing ultra, aggressive dominating behaviour is yet not fully understood.

Maintaining proper levels of testosterone in both men and women is crucial. Otherwise, it might lead to damage to both the mind and body.

You can check the testosterone levels in your body through a testosterone profile test. However, remember that a single test report reflecting a high or low testosterone level may not indicate anything too severe. You will also have to consider the symptoms to be sure.

Always consult a medical expert or doctor about mild to severe symptoms.

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