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3 out of 10 Mumbai residents at high risk of heart attack; reveals Metropolis Healthcare Study

Publication: The Pharma Times
Posted on: September 28, 2016

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~ 42,616 out of 1,35,054 samples analysed report dyslipidaemia; form the high risk group ~

Mumbai, September 29, 2016: In order to understand the intensity of the heart disease, Metropolis Healthcare conducted a comprehensive study on the population of Mumbai; ahead of World Heart Day falling on September 29th 2016. The study reveals3 out of 10 Mumbai residents are at high risk of heart attack and a marginal population is at high risk of developing cardio vascular diseases. Among the 1,35,054 lipid profile samples that were collected for a period of five years (2011 – 2015); an alarming 33.14% of patients in the age group of 20-80 years have reported dyslipidaemia and also revealed:

· 33.14% samples reported high Total Cholesterol level

· 34.44% have high Triglyceride level

· 40% of the population have extremely low HDL levels, the good cholesterol and over 53% have less than desirable levels

· 30.68% have borderline high or high LDL levels

Dr. Deepak Sanghavi, Deputy Chief Of Lab, Metropolis Healthcare Ltd said, “The incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease has been steadily rising in India. The major factors attributed to this are changes in lifestyle, lack of exercise, consumption of non-nutritious food, increased stress level, smoking and irrational use of tobacco. Prolonged working hours, hectic commute and growing incidence of obesity along with sedentary lifestyle is also one of the reasons for Mumbai’s population to be more prone to heart ailments.”

High blood cholesterol and triglyceride –Usually there are no signs or symptoms. People with high blood cholesterol level have higher chances of developing cardiac risk. This results in development of plaques in the arteries.

Plaques are basically a substance made of fat, cholesterol which clogs the arteries depriving heart and brain from getting good amount of oxygen; this increases the chances of heart attack or stroke. The higher level of HDL (sometimes called good cholesterol) in the blood lowers the chances of developing heart disease.

The general perception is that heart disease is more prevalent in men, but women are equally at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The main contributing factor is being unhealthy lifestyle, inappropriate diet and physical inactivity. Smoking and diabetes have also emerged as major factors responsible for causing cardiovascular diseases.

DATA SNAPSHOT

AGE WISE DATA

Total Cholesterol Total In %
Age Group Desirable Borderline High High Grand Total Desirable Borderline High High
20 to 30 10369 2667 755 13791 75.19 19.34 5.47
30 to 40 17805 7417 2637 27859 63.91 26.62 9.47
40 to 50 17853 8010 3225 29088 61.38 27.54 11.09
50 to 60 17740 6836 2954 27530 64.44 24.83 10.73
60 to 70 14611 4113 1675 20399 71.63 20.16 8.21
70 to 80 7579 1650 677 9906 76.51 16.66 6.83
Grand Total 85957 30693 11923 128573 66.85 23.87 9.27
Triglycerides Total In %
Age Group Desirable Borderline High High Grand Total Desirable Borderline High High
20 to 30 7137 1258 1147 9542 74.80 13.18 12.02
30 to 40 13913 3890 4414 22217 62.62 17.51 19.87
40 to 50 16770 5122 5194 27086 61.91 18.91 19.18
50 to 60 16751 5098 4522 26371 63.52 19.33 17.15
60 to 70 13429 3528 2661 19618 68.45 17.98 13.56
70 to 80 6954 1505 1021 9480 73.35 15.88 10.77
Grand Total 74954 20401 18959 114314 65.57 17.85 16.59
LDL Total In %
Age Group Desirable Near Optimal Borderline High High Grand Total Desirable Near Optimal Borderline High High
20 to 30 3360 3015 1577 608 8560 39.25 35.22 18.42 7.10
30 to 40 5884 6982 4667 2074 19607 30.01 35.61 23.80 10.58
40 to 50 7708 7812 5887 2840 24247 31.79 32.22 24.28 11.71
50 to 60 9420 6774 5094 2689 23977 39.29 28.25 21.25 11.21
60 to 70 9000 4596 3009 1483 18088 49.76 25.41 16.64 8.20
70 to 80 5059 1987 1184 576 8806 57.45 22.56 13.45 6.54
Grand Total 40431 31166 21418 10270 103285 39.15 30.17 20.74 9.94
HDL Total In %
Row Labels Desirable Borderline High Major Risk Grand Total Desirable Borderline High Major Risk
20 to 30 573 4734 3549 8856 6.47 53.46 40.07
30 to 40 957 10263 9412 20632 4.64 49.74 45.62
40 to 50 1417 13410 10593 25420 5.57 52.75 41.67
50 to 60 1635 13486 9746 24867 6.57 54.23 39.19
60 to 70 1442 10273 6852 18567 7.77 55.33 36.90
70 to 80 1015 5016 2972 9003 11.27 55.71 33.01
Grand Total 7039 57182 43124 107345 6.56 53.27 40.17

GENDER WISE DATA

Total Cholesterol Total In %
Gender Desirable Borderline High High Total Desirable Borderline High High
F 39862 15188 6324 61374 64.95 24.75 10.3
M 51256 16353 6071 73680 69.57 22.19 8.24
Total 91118 31541 12395 135054 67.47 23.35 9.18
Triglycerides Total In %
Age Group Desirable Borderline High High Grand Total Desirable Borderline High High
F 37687 8867 6856 53410 70.56 16.60 12.84
M 37264 11534 12102 60900 61.19 18.94 19.87
Grand Total 74951 20401 18958 114310 65.57 17.85 16.58
LDL Total In %
Age Group Desirable Near Optimal Borderline High High Grand Total Desirable Near Optimal Borderline High High
F 18693 16056 10858 5466 51073 36.60 31.44 21.26 10.70
M 24570 16453 11126 5099 57248 42.92 28.74 19.43 8.91
Grand Total 43263 32509 21984 10565 108321 39.94 30.01 20.30 9.75
HDL Total In %
Row Labels Desirable Borderline High Major Risk Grand Total Desirable Borderline High Major Risk
F 5992 33292 13205 52489 11.42 63.43 25.16
M 1673 26838 31808 60319 2.77 44.49 52.73
Grand Total 7665 60130 45013 112808 6.79 53.30 39.90

More information:

Cholesterol is a fat-like substance (lipid) that is present in cell membranes and is a precursor of bile acids and steroid hormones. Normally cholesterol travels in the blood in distinct particles containing both lipid and proteins (lipoproteins). In modern times, non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) has become a commonly used marker for a blood lipid pattern associated with increased risk of heart disease.

Dyslipidemia is a primary and major risk factor for CAD and may even be a prerequisite for CAD, occurring before other major risk factors come into play. Epidemiologic data also suggest that hypercholes­terolemia and perhaps coronary atherosclerosis itself are risk factors for ischemic stroke. Medical professionals typically test cholesterol levels through medical check-ups and in order to evaluate total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL-C.

Atherosclerosis is the most well-known and the fundamental reason for cardiovascular diseases. Atherosclerosis is a condition where the arteries become narrowed and hardened due to an excessive build-up of plaque in the artery wall, which is formed by accumulation of lipids, which leads to CAD. It is generally mediated by a complex interaction between lipoproteins, white blood cells and the normal components of the arterial wall.

(Reference range: The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III report . Cholesterol Total:Desirable< 200 mg/dL, Borderline high: 200-239 mg/dL, High: 240 mg/dL, Triglyceride: Normal < 150 mg/dL, Borderline high: 150-199 mg/dL, High: 200-499 mg/dL, Very high: 500 mg/dL, HDL: Major risk factor < 40 mg/dL, Negative risk factor > 60 mg/dL, LDL: Optimal: 100-129 mg/dL, Borderline high: 130-159 mg/dL, High: 160-189 mg/dL, Very high: 190)

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